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chemistry assisted etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in operation and maintenance/repair may increase a part's exposure and likelihood of failure during the part's life. Corrosion may assist the fatigue process to various degrees. Generally, it lowers the threshold stress for fatigue. It may act to roughen the surface of a part producing localized stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the splice plate. Rapid dissipations of the heat through the plate masses in association with the ice cold wind at very low service temperature must have assisted in formation of surface martensite, which appeared as “white-etching layer” in the plate surface. The effect of overheating of the splice plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... and chemistry of structural steels manufactured and fabricated for the ship's construction between the early teens and late 1920's. Metallurgical evaluation of the steels used in construction is a first step in a study of hull corrosion. Chemistry and microstructure are of interest, particularly under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... flakes in an iron matrix, typical of gray cast iron. Etching in 2% nital revealed a bainite matrix with scattered massive carbides ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 6 Micrograph showing graphite flakes characteristic of gray cast iron. Unetched. 64×. Fig. 7 Micrograph of the same area shown in Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the portable XRF software method calibration should be verified against an alloy standard close to the chemistry in the CoC or material specification. Other similar parts that have not failed or are not suspect should also be tested to assist in the investigation. Best practices include taking at least three...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...). To assist in this procedure, a microstructural analysis was made of the cast components. This involved optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). IN SEM and STEM, microchemical analyses were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is shown in Figure 7c . Fig. 6 SEM micrograph (right) and EDXA spectra (left) of a longitudinal section of nitride lead cable (the specimen was etched and re-polished). Fig. 7 Micrographs and line scans of the surface layer of a nitrided Inconel 600 lead cable: (a) micrograph showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... It is widely accepted that while ferrite is highly susceptible to hydrogen-assisted fracture and has high diffusivity and low solubility for hydrogen, the austenite is much less vulnerable to hydrogen-induced failures with a very high solubility and very low diffusivity for hydrogen [ 1 ]. Notwithstanding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-assisted fracture,” high-temperature corrosion, and biological corrosion, are normally considered today. These mechanistic-based categories may also result in one or more of the forms of corrosion (e.g., pitting, uniform attack, intergranular corrosion, and so on). Although the distinctions between...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or appearance of corrosion. Moreover, several additional mechanisms of attack, including hydrogen damage, environmentally assisted fracture, high-temperature corrosion, and biological corrosion, are normally considered today (2020). These mechanistic-based categories may also result in one or more of the forms...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a confirmed damage mode of fatigue. Other questions then have to be asked to characterize that fatigue: Was this high-cycle or low-cycle fatigue? Was the fatigue corrosion assisted? Was there evidence of differential thermal expansion? What cyclic loading is present that could have induced the observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the puncture with the assistance of corrosion. Fig. 12 SEMs with EDS analysis showing the severe corrosion at ID of the Stage 3 tube. (a) Note the irregular shape of the corrosion products and loose/porous scale. (b) Note the embedded ash/silica particles. Fig. 13 SEMs with EDS analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for metallographic evaluation. Those sections were polished and electrolytically etched in a solution prepared by adding 5 g of oxalic acid to 95 mL of water. Premature Tensile Failures Tensile specimens with a 16.25-mm gage length × 4.06-mm gage diameter are tested according to ASTM E-8, which limited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and copper alloys, in contact with a variety of liquids, chemistries, and substances. Analytical techniques employed include stereoscopic examination, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), temperature and pH testing, and metallographic analysis. The findings indicate that MIC is frequently the result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...). For a material to achieve its design creep life, control of alloy chemistry, microstructure (heat treatment), and material defects is critical at manufacture. These characteristics are evaluated in a creep failure investigation through chemical analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... steel, in this assembly cadmium plated carbon steel nuts were used. The relevant standard for carbon and alloy steel nuts is ASTM Standard A563M. There are several possible property classes which this chemistry would meet. The nut hardness was 26 Rockwell C, which is within the range for property...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thresholds for environmentally assisted cracking. Al-Si bronze was found to be susceptible to subcritical intergranular cracking in air and seawater, whereas Ni-Al bronze was unaffected. Both materials, however, are susceptible to cracking in the presence of ammonia, although the subcritical crack growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of what appears to be ferrite can also be seen. Bainite shows up as deeply etched structure further in from the origin in Fig. 19 . Core microstructure was ferrite plus pearlite for axles 1 and 2. Both stub axles had a fully pearlitic core structure. (Axle 3 chemistry was typical of 1080 steel.) Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and polished-and-etched samples by optical and electron microscopy forms a significant part of the failure investigation. Besides providing information on various microstructural features, such as cracks, porosity, inclusions, segregation, phase distribution, and others, it also reveals the effect...