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chemically driven fusion welding

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of titanium. History of the Weldment The weld was produced in a four step process: (1) tack welded in eight areas to assure alignment of the cylinders, (2) a fusion pass to seal the entire joint, (3) a penetration weld using a filler wire; and, (4) a finish weld for cosmetic purposes. All...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... precipitates, and matrix stringers. 63× Fig. 5 Photomicrograph showing crack at toe of weld. Note voids along fusion zone and intergranular corrosion within base metal and weld metal. 15.75× Fig. 6 Photomicrograph showing close-up of crack at toe of weld. Note precipitates within weld metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of arc welds. Mechanical and environmental failure origins related to other types of welding processes are also described. The article explains the cause and effects of process-related discontinuities including weld porosity, inclusions, incomplete fusion, and incomplete penetration. Different fitness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Electric resistance weld flaws Flash weld flaws Furnace butt weld flaws Hook cracks Cold welds Incomplete fusion Stitching Inclusions Shielded metal arc welding flaws Gas metal arc welding flaws Submerged arc welding flaws Misalignment Porosity Incomplete fusion Incomplete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... . Macroscopic visual examination revealed two almost parallel “hairline” cracks, each approximately 35 mm long as measured on the internal surface of the tube. These cracks had both propagated through the tube wall thickness and did not seem to relate to the circumferential fusion welding that connected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as interference fitting, welding, or use of a threaded connection, a set screw, or a keyway, can influence failure. It is also important if power...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., as well as how their alignment may be affected by deflections or distortions that can occur as a result of mechanical loads, shock, vibrations, or thermal gradients, should be considered. The method of connecting the driving or driven member to the shaft, such as press fitting, welding, or use...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... as monitoring and controlling the changes in viscosity and physical properties as a function of chemical reactions that are taking place during processing. A weld line (knit line), which is formed when separate melt fronts traveling in opposite directions meet, is generally present in most parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that act as stress intensifiers (e.g., lack of fusion, lack of penetration, porosity, slag inclusions, etc.) makes welds and weld heat-affected zones critical locations for potential brittle fracture. Stress Stress provides the energy necessary to drive a defect to fracture. Typical sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., including items such as forging laps, improper heat treatment, and installing a component made of the wrong material. Similarly, welding flaws cover welding deviations from expected and specified quality, including lack of fusion, porosity, slag, overpenetration, and improper pre- and postweld heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... photosynthesis and from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthesis is limited in the context of this article to above-ground facilities and submerged structures that receive sunlight. For covered and closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism depends on energy derived electrochemically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... within the base metal at the repair weld fusion lines and within the weld metal. Figure 6(a) shows the opened crack features in an area where a weld and remaining casting imperfection were apparent. The macroscopic fracture features differed substantially between the base metal and the welds. Some...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The cracks were evident within the base metal, at the repair weld fusion lines, and within the weld metal. Figure 6(a) shows the opened crack features in an area where a weld and remaining casting imperfection were apparent. The macroscopic fracture features differed substantially between the base metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for mechanical systems such as landing gear and gear box components Agriculture: Welded carbon or low-alloy steel pressure vessels containing ammoniacal materials that are used as a fertilizer, or stainless steel components subjected to chlorides Chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and refining...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... treatment to installing a component made from the wrong material. Similarly, welding flaws covers welding deficiencies from expected and specified quality including lack of fusion, porosity, slag, overpenetration, and improper pre- and postweld heat treatment. These two categories are special because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-boundary patch plate repair weld with excessive porosity, was identified by the Chemical Safety Board (CSB) in their subsequent investigation as a likely contributor to the incident. Additionally, a more recent CSB report identified the cause of a 2016 brazed aluminum heat-exchanger (BAHX) failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the situation and the risk associated with additional failures. In most cases, one desires to identify root causes that are reasonably correctable. An example of the variety of possible root causes of an electric motor driven compressor assembly is provided in Table 3 ( Ref 22 ). Possible causes of electric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reactions and are most frequently found in chemical process streams. All the aforementioned reactions are quite similar: they consume electrons. The aforementioned partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... components, others have concerned main structural members and have led, in some instances, to collapse and complete loss of the crane. Many of these major mishaps have resulted from welding deficiencies, but others have stemmed from failure of the jib tie-bars or associated fittings. Some manufacturers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in microstructure Loss of properties due to overheating during postplating bake Welding Incomplete fusion Incomplete penetration Brittle cracking in heat-affected zone (HAZ) Sensitized HAZ Residual-stress cracking Slag inclusions Cratering of fusion zone at endpoint Filler metal...