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chemical-polishing solutions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to reveal detectable indications. The indications were not considered serious enough to reject the forgings. A few small indications in the areas tested were revealed by magnetic particle inspection. The area was conditioned by grinding and polishing to obtain an additional inspection at a greater depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... electron microscopes (SEMs) both in as-polished and then etched conditions. Metallographic samples were electrolytically etched in 10 pct chromic acid solution to reveal the microstructure. Quantitative microscopy was conducted using an image analyzer. Thin foils were prepared using 10 pct perchloric acid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., solution etching of polished specimens requires the application of very aggressive chemicals at elevated temperatures; for example, Al 2 O 3 and Si 3 N 4 require boiling phosphoric acid at 250 °C (480 °F). In contrast to solution etching, plasma etching (which can be used only for SiC and Si 3 N 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... tubing. Fig. 4 Polished, nonetched transverse section of the straight specimen of the pigtail tubing. Examination of etched samples was performed after chemical etching of the previously polished surfaces with 50 vol% HCI, 16 vol% H 2 O 2 , and 34 vol% H 2 O. The etched microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Brass pipe couplings submitted for examination were deep-drawn from disks then annealed and subsequently cold threaded. Chemical analysis confirmed that the specified alloy Ms 63 was used for fabrication. Some of the pipe already showed fine cracks prior to their installation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., as-polished specimens were also concurrently examined under SEM at higher magnifications to garner more details about the defect. Metallographic specimens were eventually electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid solution at 6 V DC for 30 s. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were conjunctively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... (Thermo NORAN, Middleton, WI) associated with previous calibration procedure using standard samples. Conventional chemical analysis used a Thermo Jarrell Ash plasma atomic emission spectrometer (TJA Solutions, Franklin, MA). Fig. 1 Jewelry in the condition as received. (a) Stainless steel nipple...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... TM0284-96. Samples were polished to a 360 mesh, degreased and immersed in the test solutions. After the tests (72 h duration) the samples were examined for internal discontinuities using ultrasonic equipment. This auxiliary analysis furnished additional information about crack distribution in the sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and straightened for use. Fractography established that fracture occurred by stress-corrosion cracking. The cracks originated at rusted areas on the cladding that occurred under iron particles left on the surface during manufacture. High hardness values indicated that solution annealing following cold working had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... a 0.3 micron aluminum oxide slurry. The sample was electrolytically etched in a 10 percent oxalic acid solution by applying a voltage of 4V for approximately 30 seconds. The polished cross-section is shown under both low and high magnification in Figures 6 and 7 , respectively. Figure 6 shows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or sectioning destroy evidence needed for failure analysis. Fracture of a part in service is often intimately associated with the type of environment to which the part was exposed. Active chemical environments include water, salt air, salt water, acid solutions, alkaline solutions, molten metal, and even...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-passive metal as a function of solution oxidizing power (electrode potential) Fig. 2 Corrosion deposits on the outer-diameter surface of type 304 stainless steel inner braid wire strands used as reinforcement in a polytetrafluoroethylene hose used for chemical transport. Note corrosion at wire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... near the seacoast. A complete check was then made, both visually and with the aid of a low-power magnifying glass, of all coupling nuts of this type on the missile. Investigation (visual inspection, spectrographic and chemical analysis, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., no stress relieving was done. This further enhanced the stress conditions in the HAZ and aggravated the SCC. Most Probable Cause A CO 2 absorber is used to remove CO 2 from the process gas so the gas can be reused in the chemical plant. Carbon dioxide is removed by passing it through a solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
..., chemical analysis, mechanical testing, as-polished 54x magnification, etched with nital 33x/54x/215x/230x magnification) supported the conclusions that the NDE indications were the consequence of a cold-shut condition in the casting. The cold shut served as a stress-concentration site and was therefore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... in the railroad industry should adhere to the specifications in ASTM A21 — Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Axles. The standard outlines mechanical and chemical requirements for the various axle steel grades. This particular axle was a Grade F heat-treated axle. A spectrographic chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Surface Examination Metallography Chemical Analysis/Identification Mechanical Properties The 190 mm (7 1 2 in.) outside diameter vertical shaft operated at 2550 hp in a temperature range of 15 to 35°C (60 to 95°F), not exceeding a maximum temperature of 40°C (100°F). Initial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...). The corrosion occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... verification, accessed overall workmanship, and measured the respective surface roughness of the rods in an effort to identify any discrepancies. Next, mechanical testing was performed, followed by optical and electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. Finally, ARL performed laboratory heat treatments...