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chemical-mechanical planarization

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the required particle size and spacing to cause the “tell-tale” planar dimpled facets (PDF) on the impact fracture [ 4 ]. There is a second mechanism that weakens the grain boundaries especially near large grain boundary junctions if the preheat temperature exceeds the incipient melting temperature of grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... failure, whereas the opposite side exhibited a planar-type fracture. Sections were removed from the eroded area and from the opposite lip for microscopic studies and chemical analysis. The eroded edges exhibited river bed ditching, indicative of thermal fatigue. Microstructural analysis showed massive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of fractures attributable to HE at ambient temperatures [ 9 , 10 ]. Low nickel austenitic stainless steels possess lower SFE due to lower Ni content and the predominant deformation mechanism in these steels is through planar slip as opposed to cross-slip of dislocations. The decrease of SFE of austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the aluminum equipment that was in operation prior to the installation of the mercury-removal bed. Butt welds Chemical processing equipment Ethylene Hydrocarbons Mercury Repair welding 5083-O UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion Liquid metal induced embrittlement Background A through-wall...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... titanium (ASTM F67, grade 2) etched with modified Weck's reagent and viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint. The arrow along the top edge points to a surface layer containing mechanical twins. Fig. 18 Light micrograph showing residual damage (arrows) from preparation that was not removed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Weck’s reagent and viewed with polarized light plus sensitive tint. The arrow along the top edge points to a surface layer containing mechanical twins. Fig. 10 Light micrograph showing residual damage (arrows) from preparation that was not removed by the procedure when this specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to full-power operation and ensured a low probability of a similar occurrence for all CANDU reactors. Fracture mechanics Laminations Nuclear reactor components Pressure tubes Zr-2.5Nb UNS R60901 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Mixed-mode fracture Metalworking-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... through the longitudinal displacement of the inner (concentric) pipe. Fractography, microstructural, microhardness, and chemical analyses revealed that the concentric pipe failed due to fatigue. Fatigue cracks initiated along longitudinal welds where wire spacers attach to the external surface of the pipe...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... plot of polycarbonate stress-strain behavior as a function of temperature. Note that the crazing locus decreases in strain value with increasing temperature. (a) 23 °C (73.5 °F). Relative humidity, 50%. (b) 40 °C (104 °F). (c) 80 °C (176 °F). (d) 100 °C (212 °F). Courtesy Mobay Chemical Company...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., the cost of downtime adds up quickly while operators troubleshoot and swap out worn components. Initially, the quality of the bushings came into question, but after a detailed analysis of the entire crimping mechanism, several other issues emerged that were not previously considered. As a result...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be classified into three broad categories: planar imperfections, volumetric imperfections, and geometrical imperfections. These spatial categories, as discussed subsequently, all have distinct mechanical characteristics in terms of weld reliability and performance. Fig. 2 Schematic of defects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnification: 39×. (b) The well-defined striations resulted from the planar slip characteristic of stainless steels. Original magnification: 810× Fig. 15 Fatigue fracture in 18% Ni, grade 250 maraging steel tested at room temperature. (a) Extensive secondary cracking can be seen in a lower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... of failure mechanism Chemical analysis Analysis of fracture mechanics Testing under simulated service conditions Analysis of all the evidence, formulation of conclusions, and writing the report Although following these steps will provide information to help determine the contributing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of the hull attesting to the integrity of the coating systems used on the hull for the past 20 years. A chemical analysis of the hull plate is: 0.16%C, 0.68%Mn, 0.2%Si, 0.02%S, 0.007%P. The carbon equivalent is 0.28% using the widely accepted carbon equivalent formula for carbon manganese steels: (Eq 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contribute directly to the formation of calcium carbonate, a critical factor in the buildup of scale and pitting corrosion on heat exchanger tubes. heat exchanger tubes pitting corrosion scale formation IA/PA mild steel scale deposits chemical analysis calcium concentration Mild steel (alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., films, nonmetals, composites, assemblies Acoustic emission (AE) Multiple distributed sensors detect and triangulate AE stress-wave source in response to mechanical or thermal stress. Corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, weld cracking, creep and fatigue cracking Sensitive to noise and vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that corrosion abatement can yield. Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion The articles in this Section are devoted to the identification and analysis of corrosion-related failures, the categorization of corrosion failures by form and mechanism, and the application of preventive measures. The mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in global savings of 15 to 35% of the damage costs, or 375 to 875 billion U.S. dollars. Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion The articles in this Section are devoted to the identification and analysis of corrosion-related failures, the categorization of corrosion failures by form and mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) The well-defined striations resulted from the planar slip characteristic of stainless steels. 810× Fig. 15 Fatigue fracture in 18% Ni, grade 250, maraging steel tested at room temperature. (a) Extensive secondary cracking can be seen in a lower-magnification fractograph. 126×. (b) The cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... , Dowling A.R. , “Assessment of the Integrity of Structures Containing Defects,” R/H/R6-Rev 2, Central Electric Generating Board, London, April 1980 . 11. Rolfe S.T. and Barsom J.M. , Fracture and Fatigue control in Structures: Applications of fracture Mechanics , Prentice-Hall...