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chemical vapor deposition

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract A major cause of failure in components subjected to rolling or rolling/sliding contacts is contact fatigue. This article focuses on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performance and failure modes of overlay coatings such as those deposited by physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... processing or is sold as a final product. In general, water is used to cool and condense the vapors inside the condenser. Redesign the V-shape junction so as to eliminate the stagnation locations. Conduct periodic chemical cleaning of the cooling water side of the condenser to remove the deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-water rinse. The water wash chemicals vaporized before they reached the stage 1 HPT nozzles. The highest-boiling-point constituent boils at roughly 315 to 370 °C (600 to 700 °F). The engine was also washed each time it was taken off-line for maintenance. The gas turbine was brought up to cranking speed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a deposit removed from a fracture surface that experienced stress corrosion may not reveal the corrodent that caused the SCC. Often the fracture surface is flushed with water or cleaned prior to testing. Liquid penetrants, cleaning fluids, cutting fluids, and solvents may alter the chemical composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... are presented in this report. The analyses used to determine the cause of failure include metallographic examination of the fractures and chemical analysis of the deposits found within the pipe. The failures of the purge ventilation components impacted the escape of the corrosive salts. The efficacy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... compressor Impellers Mechanical properties Melting Reactions (chemical) Rubbing Aluminum-silicon alloy (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Background Applications A centrifugal refrigeration system depends upon centrifugal force to compress the refrigerant vapors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... spectroscopy (EDS) was employed for chemical analysis of the fracture surface of one of the linear defects on the damaged impeller blades. Figure 11 presents the EDS spectrum for the black deposit on the tight crack-like portion of the defect. This region is rich in carbon, attributed to graphite mold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (by moles). Table 1 lists some analyses that illustrate the range of results. The amount and composition of the salt deposit were sufficient to cause substantial hot corrosion above the melting point of the salt mixture (estimated to be approximately 520 °C, or 970 °F). Chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and the tube OD and coil ID. As noted above, however, no liquid exists at the tube ID to absorb the heat from the gas flame. Heat dissipation from the hot coil ID occurs by conduction through the metal but is less by convection through the vapor than through the liquid. The presence of any sooty deposit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diffraction (XRD) provides chemical composition information for crystalline phases in the corrosion deposit. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is elemental analysis, as opposed to the quantitative composition analysis provided by XRD. The technique is used to analyze a well-mixed scale/deposit or different...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer Further graphite deposition from the gas phase on these catalytically active metal particles (iron, nickel). Chemical reactions producing such high carbon activities, for example, in reformer applications, are: (Eq 1) Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... opening displacements COV coefficient of variation CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission CTE coefficient of thermal expansion CTOD crack-tip opening displacement CVD chemical vapor deposition CVN Charpy V-notch (impact test or speci- men) d depth; diameter da/dN fatigue crack growth rate da/dt crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... occurred in welded joints and in unwelded portions of the bellows. The bellows were made by forming the convolution halves from stainless steel sheet, then welding the convolutions together. Evidence from visual examination, liquid penetrant inspection chemical analysis, hardness tests, and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... external corrosion results from tube metal temperature, corrosive flue gas, and surface deposits [ 10 ]. The oxygen content of the steam vapor in the tube was low (0.007–0.030 mg/L). Thus, the corrosion of the pipe, particularly through water steam oxidation, can be considered a hypoxic process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or a combination of ceramic and metal (cermet) materials, which are much harder than the underlying steel substrate ( Ref 136 ). Three major techniques are used for these coatings: physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal spray. Physical Vapor Deposition Coatings Overlay coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is frequently associated with failure in steam power plant equipment, but the active corrosive agent is not always obvious. Consequently, collection and preservation of corrosion products (particularly loose, flaky, or powdery deposits) may be of vital importance, because chemical analysis of corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but the active corrosive agent is not always obvious. Consequently, collection and preservation of corrosion products, particularly loose, flaky, or powdery deposits, may be vital because chemical analysis of corrosion products can be a key factor in determination of cause. Characteristic Causes of Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Comparison between the chemical composition of the boiler tube steel and the one specified by ASTM A 192-02 standard Table 1 Comparison between the chemical composition of the boiler tube steel and the one specified by ASTM A 192-02 standard Elements Chemical composition boiler tube...