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chemical thermodynamics

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...), THERMO-CALC thermodynamic software, and other techniques to analyze the failure. Experimental Methods The chemical composition of the steam chest material is shown in Table 1 . The mechanical properties of samples machined from the steam chest were measured at room and elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... are present in almost any fuel [ 2 , 5 ]: (Eq 1) oxygen + sulfur + sodium = sodium sulfate from air from fuel and / or sea salt On a thermodynamic basis, sodium chloride is unstable in the presence of even small concentrations of sulfur in an oxidizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... locations are consistent. The steam path through the turbine is the thread that ties the pieces together. The thermodynamics and gas dynamics describing the flow of the steam should agree with the evidence found on the blades. An important part of an internal examination is a metallurgical examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... spectroscopy Oxide scales Thermodynamics Incoloy 800H UNS N08800 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Introduction After 9 years in service the transfer line of an ethane-cracking furnace developed a leak during decoking of the furnace tubes. The purpose of the furnace is to heat saturate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... metals, although both materials resist chemical attack in different manners. Electrochemical processes attack metals at their interfaces by dissolution in aqueous solutions, whereas the accumulation of surface deposits may limit the corrosive process; both cases will adversely affect structural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... flux. The embrittlement was shown to be caused by the flow of corrosion generated hydrogen which converted the cementite to methane which nucleated voids in the steel. A thermodynamic estimate indicated that a small amount of chromium would stabilize the carbides against decomposition by hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... etched with the chemical listed in Table 1 . Chemicals used in preparing metallographic samples. Table 1 Chemicals used in preparing metallographic samples. Metallographic etchant used for optical and scanning electron microscopy samples. 100 ml HCl + 5 ml 30% H 2 O 2 swab 1—5 sec, 25°C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... gradually approach thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach to equilibrium can lead to drastic or sometimes subtle changes in physical properties. Although aging is often characterized by monitoring changes in excess enthalpy and entropy, these measurements do not necessarily directly correlate with changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of accelerated life testing and aging of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced plastic materials for assessing long-term material properties and life expectancy in hostile service environments. It considers various environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, weathering, liquid chemicals (i.e...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis in conjunction with dimensional analysis, phase diagrams and thermodynamics considerations were employed to evaluate the various hypotheses. All evidence pointed to an oxide mass in the area where the hole developed, likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography The scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly showed spherical inclusions at all of the origins ( Fig. 2b ). Chemical Analysis/Identification Material An energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was performed on the inclusions remaining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... It is this combination of molecular structure and complex formulation that requires specialized testing ( Ref 2 ). While the chemical composition of a failed metal component can often be evaluated using a single spectroscopic technique, a similar determination requires multiple analytical approaches for a part produced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This introductory article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and thus their eventual effect on the end-use performance of engineering plastics. The polymers covered include hydrocarbon polymers, carbon-chain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on this analysis, corrective action to mitigate or eliminate future failures can be initiated. Analysis of the failure generally requires the identification of the mode of degradation, whether it is mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, or a combination of several factors. This failure analysis can be complex...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Additionally, plastic resins usually contain additives, such as reinforcing fillers, plasticizers, colorants, antidegradants, and process aids. It is this combination of molecular structure and complex formulation that requires specialized testing ( Ref 2 ). While the chemical composition of a failed metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the thermal properties of engineering plastics and elastomers with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and base polymer conformation as determined by thermal analysis. It describes the processing of base polymers with or without additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the identification of the mode of degradation, whether it is mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, or a combination of several factors. The failure analysis can be complex, because more than one failure mechanism could be operative. The education and experience of the failure analyst augments the failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A sleeve-shaped fire shield that operates inside one of two burner trains in an oil and gas processing unit ruptured after 15 y of service. A detailed analysis was conducted to determine how and why the sleeve failed. The investigation included visual inspection, chemical and gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... photosynthesis and from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthesis is limited in the context of this article to above-ground facilities and submerged structures that receive sunlight. For covered and closed systems and buried facilities, microbial metabolism depends on energy derived electrochemically...