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chemical segregation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... of an unetched longitudinal section taken through the die. The pattern was microscopically revealed after etching with 5 % nital to be due to severe chemical segregation or banding. Considerable variation in the hardness, corresponding to the banded and non-banded regions across the face of the specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... during forging. This evidence supported the conclusion that even through there was some indication of chemical segregation, the folds made during forging initiated the main crack. Furthermore, even if the steel had been more homogeneous, hardening cracks would probably have been promoted by the coarse...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... from the inside surface. A much more severe condition was revealed after the test. The indications were classified as areas of chemical segregation and nonmetallic inclusions. The ring was considered unsatisfactory for the application and replacement of the defective ring from an acceptable billet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... suggested that chemical segregation contributed to the hard areas. Postweld normalized heat treatment apparently did not sufficiently reduce the hardness of these areas. Oil field equipment, corrosion Pipe, corrosion Sour gas, environment Sulfide stress cracking Sulfides, environment Welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... provided a caustic solution (NaOH) to remove HCl from the stream, before the latter was directed to a burner. Metallographic examination showed that the cracks were intergranular and were frequently branched. Although nominal chemical composition of the component was found within the specified range...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Circumstances Leading to Failure Pertinent Specifications Performance of Other Parts in Same or Similar Service Specimen Selection Surface Examination Chemical Analysis Chemical analysis clearly established that the actual composition with respect to aluminum, lead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0045903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
..., the failure appeared to have resulted from corrosion-assisted fatigue, and the inclusion concentration in the fracture-initiated area indicated that the chemical-composition limits for sulfur and manganese would have greatly exceeded material specifications. A higher quality steel was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the oil film and eroding the beating material. A byproduct was heat, which assisted the failure. Recommendations included establishing closer control of chemical composition and foundry casting practices to alleviate the carbon-flotation form of segregation. Additionally, some nonmetallurgical practices...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of the segregation problem and representative samples were chosen for chemical and hardness evaluation. Charpy V-notch samples were then machined from the longitudinal direction of the central regions of all 22 cores and tested at various temperatures on an instrumented impact testing apparatus. Representative SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in hardenability variations that may initiate failures. Chemical segregation or banding, carburization, and decarburization are a few of the types of elemental variations that can affect localized thermal response. Additionally, grain size differentials can provide unpredicted hardening. Wide ranges of grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of residual stress. Chemical analysis of the material indicated a very high average carbon content, as well as segregation of carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus in the middle of the web. Chemical analyses of the core and edge regions, metallographic investigations, and the sulfur prints from the cross section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to a decrease in grain-boundary cohesion resulting from sulfur segregation. Addition of molybdenum proved effective in preventing cracking. The molybdenum promoted MnS precipitation in the grain and preferentially segregated to the interfaces. Brittle fracture Casting defects Castings Molybdenum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... using a microprobe identified the segregations as copper-base particles ( Fig. 7 ). Table 1 Results of chemical analysis Element Composition, % Bar stock L77 specification Copper 3.96–4.09 3.9–5.0 Magnesium 0.36–0.56 0.2–0.8 Silicon 0.62–0.76 0.5–0.9 Manganese 0.52...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Results indicated that the boiler failure was caused by grain-boundary segregation of phosphorous, tin, and nitrogen and the in-service formation of carbide films and granules on the grain boundaries. steam chest fracture high-temperature oxidation chromium alloy steel grain boundary defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of cracking of an as-drawn 90-10 cupronickel tube during mechanical working were investigated to determine the source of embrittlement. Embrittlement was sporadic, but when present was typically noted after the first process anneal. Microstructural and chemical analyses were performed on an embrittled section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 700 – 727 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544 Case Study Conclusions Final Thoughts External Examination Fracture Examination Microstructure Examination Chemical Analysis Discussion Although much...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
..., the HAZ, and the flange cross section at low magnification. Of particular significance is the light-shaded layer about midway between the top and bottom surfaces of the flange. This was a region of carbon segregation where chemical analysis showed the steel to contain 0.34% C and 1.16% Mn. Near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking steam generator tubes INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE is decohesion that occurs along a grain boundary. Intergranular fracture is often associated with the presence of an embrittlement mechanism or the presence of precipitates and segregates at the grain boundary, which make the grain boundary...