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chemical recovery

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source was photographic silver...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... paper mill recovery boilers, stainless steel superheater banks are often installed because of their superior fireside corrosion resistance, excellent high-temperature strength, and relatively good weldability with chromium/molybdenum low-alloy steel tubing in the system. This particular tertiary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Identification of alloys using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. There are several methods available for quantitative analysis of metal alloys, and the analyst should carefully approach selection of the method used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Thermal fatigue fracture Crevice corrosion In recent years, there has been a growing application of reactive metals in the processing equipment in chemical, petroleum, and power industries. Commercially pure titanium with desirable engineering properties as well as excellent corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract With any polymeric material, chemical exposure may have one or more different effects. Some chemicals act as plasticizers, changing the polymer from one that is hard, stiff, and brittle to one which is softer, more flexible, and sometimes tougher. Often these chemicals can dissolve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Although, many of the principles that apply to Rankine cycle systems also apply to systems using other steam cycles or to systems using working fluids other than steam. Boilers/steam generators work on the principle of conversion of the chemical energy in fuel into thermal energy to generate steam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... industries to drive other machinery, to generate electricity, or to generate electricity and produce steam as in a combined cycle where the system incorporates a gas turbine, steam turbine, and heat recovery steam generator. These applications cover the utility industry (combustion turbines) as well as ship...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... In addition, bismuth did not appear to be readily apparent. The coating was meant to contain around 2% bismuth. Chemical Analysis Though it is possible to detect bismuth in the SEM, a more definitive method uses inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The tin plating was removed from both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... vessel. Ammonium compounds Chemical processing equipment Explosions Fires Nitrates Spargers Titanium (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A Case Study from the files of Dr. Charles Rau On 13 December 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium nitrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... there are many cases when it is easy to be misled regarding the processability of a polymer if the melt flow rate is the only variable considered. Creep/Recovery and Stress Relaxation In addition to the steady state flow testing already described, there are two additional unidirectional transient tests...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with chemical absorption. The experiments can also evaluate the recovery after the removal or evaporation of the absorbed liquid. Methods for Molecular Weight Assessment The aspect of molecular structure, and specifically molecular weight, makes polymeric materials unique among materials commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... such absorption, including loss of strength and stiffness. Example 11 in Ref 4 shows the changes in mechanical properties of a plastic resin associated with chemical absorption. Experiments can also evaluate recovery after the removal or evaporation of an absorbed liquid. Methods for Molecular Weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... dilatometry. Volume changes determined by this method are reported to have an accuracy of 1 to 5 × 10 −5 cm 3 /g (0.6 to 3 × 10 −3 ft 3 /lb). The use of the dilatometer is discussed in Ref 37 , 48 . One researcher measured the isobaric volume recovery in PS samples quenched from a temperature above T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... temperature under load, Vicat temperature Mechanical spectroscopy Viscosity, normal stress difference, shear elastic and loss modulus Rheological properties, flow behavior, melt or solution elasticity, yield stress Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the best resistance against stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in AM-350. A Key aspect of the Space Shuttle is its designed reusability. Therefore, after solid rocket booster recovery, the device is decontaminated with hydroxy-acetic acid. Prior to reinstallation for flight, the device is cleaned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... ever seen ( 4 ). Recovery Efforts Recovery efforts began in mid-January of 1942 but it was soon determined that the Arizona was structurally unsound. A large 12 in. wide crack extending from 10 ft. below the mud line in a radial direction toward the keel of the ship was discovered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., as well as the dependence of the viscoelastic character of a plastic on chemical, physical, and compositional variables. By examining the viscoelastic behavior of plastics, the information obtained are then applied in situations in which it may be important to anticipate the long-term properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., indicates elastic memory and recovery in the melt phase, as well as impact resistance and creep behavior in the solid regime. The complex modulus, G *, is determined by using vector analysis, and the complex viscosity, η*, is G * divided by the dynamic frequency, ω, in radians per second or hertz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on. Creation of parts that can flex, act as a spring, are stiff, can resist chemical attack, can withstand impact, or can retain properties at elevated temperatures all fall within the benefits attained when designing parts or products to be manufactured from plastics. One benefit will remain at the top...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... length (>100%) and return very close to their original shape. Metals and thermoplastics typically show elongations of <50% with permanent deformation and little or no recovery of their original dimensions. When deformed in compression mode, elastomers can also maintain a tendency to recover...