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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... as a result of molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... In typical paper mill recovery boilers, stainless steel superheater banks are often installed because of their superior fireside corrosion resistance, excellent high-temperature strength, and relatively good weldability with chromium/molybdenum low-alloy steel tubing in the system. This particular tertiary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Identification of alloys using quantitative chemical analysis is an essential step during a metallurgical failure analysis process. There are several methods available for quantitative analysis of metal alloys, and the analyst should carefully approach selection of the method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Thermal fatigue fracture Crevice corrosion In recent years, there has been a growing application of reactive metals in the processing equipment in chemical, petroleum, and power industries. Commercially pure titanium with desirable engineering properties as well as excellent corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... related industries to drive other machinery, to generate electricity, or to generate electricity and produce steam as in a combined cycle where the system incorporates a gas turbine, steam turbine, and heat recovery steam generator. These applications cover the utility industry (combustion turbines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... into the boiler again. Although, many of the principles that apply to Rankine cycle systems also apply to systems using other steam cycles or to systems using working fluids other than steam. Boilers/steam generators work on the principle of conversion of the chemical energy in fuel into thermal energy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... In addition, bismuth did not appear to be readily apparent. The coating was meant to contain around 2% bismuth. Chemical Analysis Though it is possible to detect bismuth in the SEM, a more definitive method uses inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The tin plating was removed from both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... in the neutralizer vessel. Ammonium compounds Chemical processing equipment Explosions Fires Nitrates Spargers Titanium (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A Case Study from the files of Dr. Charles Rau On 13 December 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with chemical absorption. The experiments can also evaluate the recovery after the removal or evaporation of the absorbed liquid. Methods for Molecular Weight Assessment The aspect of molecular structure, and specifically molecular weight, makes polymeric materials unique among materials commonly used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the best resistance against stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in AM-350. A Key aspect of the Space Shuttle is its designed reusability. Therefore, after solid rocket booster recovery, the device is decontaminated with hydroxy-acetic acid. Prior to reinstallation for flight, the device is cleaned...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., the most cataclysmic event the world has ever seen ( 4 ). Recovery Efforts Recovery efforts began in mid-January of 1942 but it was soon determined that the Arizona was structurally unsound. A large 12 in. wide crack extending from 10 ft. below the mud line in a radial direction toward the keel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information on specific ions and substances, service environments, and preservice environments responsible for SCC. It details the analysis of SCC failures, which include on-site examination, sampling, observation of fracture surface characteristics, macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for the development of season-cracks” ( Ref 3 ), and, in the case of cartridge brass, it was determined that this agency was an environment that contained ammonia. It was concluded that season cracking was the result of the chemical composition of the metal, specifically the amount of zinc in the brass alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in steam demand, composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis • Loading direction may show failure was secondary • Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., an ever-diminishing creep rate results; however, if the temperature is sufficiently high, dislocations rearrange and annihilate through recovery events. During creep deformation, the material also is progressively degraded or damaged as the amount of creep strain increases over time. The classical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., because crucial evidence may be damaged or destroyed in the wreckage recovery efforts. It is also important to note if the wreckage was disturbed due to fire suppression and/or rescue efforts prior to documentation. Common documentation tools and techniques available to the investigators include...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... triple points• Reaction scales or internal precipitation• Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis• Loading direction may show failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or chemicals that can generate or decompose into ammonia. Hydrostatic testing procedures that permit water to become stagnant in the tubes can result in serious pitting and SCC. Failure to remove shop hydrostatic testing water that contained contaminants has caused tubing failures to occur before startup...