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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by the chemical reaction that corroded the internal tube surface. Steel embrittled by hydrogen can be restored only if grain boundary cracking or decarburization had not occurred but since the material embrittled in this manner, its replacement was recommended. Boiler tubes Cracking (fracturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... lamination and crack in the tank wall adjacent to the tank nozzle. The mechanism of failure was overpressurization of the railroad tank car caused by a chemical reaction of the butadiene contents. The interrelationship of the mode, mechanism, and consequences of failure is reviewed to reconstruct...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... reaction within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background Visual of General Examination Physical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... be isolated from water and excessive heat. Water leaking into the vessel through a graphite seal may have initiated the reactions that caused the accident. Blenders Chemical processing equipment Explosions Stainless steel (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract This investigation characterizes five surgical stainless steel piercings and one niobium piercing that caused adverse reactions during use, culminating with the removal of the jewelry. Chemical composition shows that none of the materials are in accordance with ISO standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inside a reaction tower. The scrubbed stream is directed to the burner before being released to the air. The average working temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of the gas stream before entering the reaction tower are presented in Table 1 . In cases where a pressure drop occurs, the flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract In January 1965, a Reaction Control System (RCS) pressure vessel (titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V) on an Apollo spacecraft cracked in six adjacent locations. It used N2O4 for vehicle attitude control through roll, pitch, and yaw engines, and was protected from the N2O4 by a Teflon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to use an integrated multi-disciplinary approach to solving failure problems. Microscopy, fractography, and standard mechanical testing did not provide an answer as to why the component failed and how to overcome it for safe future operation. It is not known what chemical reaction took place to cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001494
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... chemical reactions occurred: 2 Cu + O → Cu 2 O Cu 2 O + H 2 → 2 Cu 2 H 2 O Fig. 1 SEM micrographs of a hydrogen embrittled copper lead fracture. (b) is a detailed micrograph of (a) and shows oxidized voids as X and ductile fracture areas as Y...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... penetration. For the S + L case, the corrosion resistance of structural ceramics to molten salts determines their usefulness as components in the chemical industry, such as pumps and heat exchangers. The S + G type of reaction is important for structural ceramics used as kiln furniture in industrial furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the macromolecular chains, reducing molecular weight, and diminishing polymer properties as a result. Each of these effects is examined in subsequent paragraphs. Plasticization, Solvation and Swelling Environmental Stress Cracking Polymer Degradation by Chemical Reaction Surface Embrittlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... probable source was hydrogen pickup from chemical milling coupled with the presence of a subsurface defect in the extruded material. Hydrogen atoms; that is, nascent hydrogen, are produced from the following chemical reaction: 2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H 2 O   …   2 NaAlO 2 + 3 H 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for above-grade applications. However, coal tar coatings are more resistant to moisture, acids, and alkalis than the asphaltics. Cross-linked thermosetting coatings refer to chemically cured coatings that harden by a chemical reaction either with a copolymer or with moisture. Examples of chemically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and contains approximately 7 ppm of sulfur oxides. The induration process includes chemical reactions that oxidize magnetite to hematite, calcine the flux, and allow some of the alkali impurities to vaporize. These vapor species are carried through the bed by the combustion gases, and condensation occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth, alkaline...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: Inhibitors are defined as a chemical substance or combination of substances that, when present in the environment, prevent or reduce corrosion without significant reaction with the components of the environment. Chemical treatment or inhibitors can be used for corrosion control in aqueous environments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... attack Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... W.B. , Chemical Thermodynamics of High Temperature Reactions in Metal Dusting Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 19 , 1963 , p 360t 11. Grabke H.J. , Krajak R. , and Müller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of High Temperature Alloys , Mater. Corros. , Vol 44 , 1993 , p 89...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that the fatty acids attach to a sliding surface without reacting chemically with the surface. The antiwear and EP additives are thought to form a thin film of reaction products that has low friction. Virtually all bearings contain particles that were not deliberately placed there. Some of the particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material selection wear test WEAR is defined as surface damage with gradual removal of material from solid surfaces by abrasives or a counterface in relative motion. Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment, involving metal...