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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.9781627082204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit (that contained 180 tubes) used in a chemical processing plant. It was advised that the tube material was type 316 stainless steel. The shell-side fluid was condensate and gaseous methylene chloride, while the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A carbon steel piping cross-tee assembly which conveyed hydrogen sulfide (H7S) process gas at 150 to 275 deg C (300 to 585 deg F) with a maximum allowable operating pressure of 3 MPa (450 psig) ruptured at the toe of one of the welds at the cross after several years of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A substantial number of copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65Cu-35Zn) ferrules for electrical fuses cracked while in storage and while in service in paper mills and other chemical processing plants. The ferrules, made by three different manufacturers, were of several sizes. One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract One of five underground drain lines intended to carry a highly acidic effluent from a chemical-processing plant to distant holding tanks failed in just a few months. Each line was made of 304L stainless steel pipe 73 mm (2 in.) in diam with a 5 mm (0.203 in.) wall thickness. Lengths...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A gray cast iron (ASTM 247 type A) gate valve in an oleum and sulfuric acid piping loop at a chemical process plant fractured catastrophically after approximately 10 years of service. The valve was a 150 mm (6 in.) bolted flange type rated to conform to ANSI B16.1 for service at 1034...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plating Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Regenerators Valves Cadmium-coated steel Surface treatment related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Background Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws failed. Applications The cap screws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses pressure vessels, piping, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants. It begins by explaining the necessity of conducting a failure analysis, followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Microbial degradation in the environment is initiated by abiotic (nonliving physical or chemical) processes. Mechanical weathering and other mechanical processes are the main drivers of the initial degradation. This article presents an overview of weathering and biodegradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... hydrotesting procedures was recommended to prevent similar failures. Bacterial corrosion Chemical processing equipment, corrosion Leakage Pipe, corrosion 304 UNS S30400 Biological corrosion Pitting corrosion Background The type 304 stainless steel pipelines, vessels, and tanks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...- and transgranular cracking. It is probable that the heating associated with the repair welds made from time to time also contributed to the trouble. The transgranular cracks, however, were indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Repair welding Storage vessels Vessels Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... It is believed that, in the initial stages, solution of the copper-zinc alloy takes place, this being followed by a secondary reaction resulting in the elector-chemical redeposition of the copper. The net result of the process is that sound metal is gradually replaced by a brittle, porous deposit of copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by internal carburization. Quality control of welding procedures and filler metal was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Crack propagation Furnaces Heat-resistant steels Tubing Weld defects Welded joints HK-40 UNS J94204 Joining-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... with the specified material and, as a result, was not as thermally stable as the reference material. Chemical composition Feedstock Molding resins Plasticizers Thermal analysis Tubing (nonmetal) Tubings Polyvinyl chloride (Other, general, or unspecified) processing-related failures A section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... impermeable to the diffusion of ionic species was recommended. Chemical processing equipment Nitric acid, environment Spools, corrosion Sulfuric acid, environment Teflon-lined carbon steel Intergranular corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Background A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... because of unrelated tube failures. Sanitary (chlorinated) well water was generally used in the system, although filtered process make-up water (river water) containing ammonia was occasionally used. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, mercurous nitrate testing, unetched 5X micrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Chemical Process Industries , Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries , Columbus, OH , 1985 , p. 41 . Selected References Selected References • French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related Equipment , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... microscopy examination. The tests revealed that the tubes conformed to specification. Crack morphology indicated stress-corrosion cracking by chlorides present in the cooling water. Use of a duplex stainless steel (for example, UNS S32304 S31803) as a tube material was recommended. Chemical processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to be completely martensitic. Thus, the failure was due to hardening of the base material during welding, and recommendation was made to temper or anneal the welded regions to reduce the effects of hydrogen under pressure. Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Heat exchangers Post heating Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Decarburization Surface defects Nickel steel St 55.25 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past for highly stressed forgings are attacked by hydrogen under high pressure. The attack causes...