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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (H7S) process gas at 150 to 275 deg C (300 to 585 deg F) with a maximum allowable operating pressure of 3 MPa (450 psig) ruptured at the toe of one of the welds at the cross after several years of service. The failure was initially thought to be the result of thermal fatigue, and the internal surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.9781627082204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit (that contained 180 tubes) used in a chemical processing plant. It was advised that the tube material was type 316 stainless steel. The shell-side fluid was condensate and gaseous methylene chloride, while the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A substantial number of copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65Cu-35Zn) ferrules for electrical fuses cracked while in storage and while in service in paper mills and other chemical processing plants. The ferrules, made by three different manufacturers, were of several sizes. One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract One of five underground drain lines intended to carry a highly acidic effluent from a chemical-processing plant to distant holding tanks failed in just a few months. Each line was made of 304L stainless steel pipe 73 mm (2 in.) in diam with a 5 mm (0.203 in.) wall thickness. Lengths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... degradation in the environment is initiated by abiotic (nonliving physical or chemical) processes. Mechanical weathering and other mechanical processes are the main drivers of the initial degradation. This article presents an overview of weathering and biodegradation. It summarizes the main synthetic polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses pressure vessels, piping, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants. It begins by explaining the necessity of conducting a failure analysis, followed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... load from torqued studs (in increments of approximately 10,600 kPa or 1500 psi). Abstract A gray cast iron (ASTM 247 type A) gate valve in an oleum and sulfuric acid piping loop at a chemical process plant fractured catastrophically after approximately 10 years of service. The valve was a 150...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... during initial loading. Metallographic and XDS chemical analysis in conjunction with SEM examination of one failed and one unfailed cap screw indicated that the screws had failed by hydrogen embrittlement. The plating process was the likely source of the hydrogen. It was recommended that the remainder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of borehole water were taken from various sites at the plant. The chemical plant was one of three similar complexes constructed from AISI type 304 stainless steel in the same general location. The two other plants were in the process of hydrotesting at the time that failure occurred. The plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...- and transgranular cracking. It is probable that the heating associated with the repair welds made from time to time also contributed to the trouble. The transgranular cracks, however, were indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Repair welding Storage vessels Vessels Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to be completely martensitic. Thus, the failure was due to hardening of the base material during welding, and recommendation was made to temper or anneal the welded regions to reduce the effects of hydrogen under pressure. Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Heat exchangers Post heating Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Decarburization Surface defects Nickel steel St 55.25 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Unalloyed steels and the pure nickel steels frequently used in the past for highly stressed forgings are attacked by hydrogen under high pressure. The attack causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for cavity nucleation Relatively low values of the hardness and tensile strength ( Table 2 ), associated with a decrease in the mechanical resistance of the weld. Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Crack propagation Furnaces Heat-resistant steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Recommendations included eliminating the chlorides from the system, maintaining the temperature of the outlet stream above the dewpoint at all times, or that replacing the type 316 stainless steel with an alloy such as Incoloy 800 that is more resistant to chloride attack. Ammonia Chemical processing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the affected area yielded low specific impact energy values. These are the significant characteristics of hydrogen attack. The attack penetrated to a depth of 13 to 16 mm. It was recommended that the manifolds be made of hydrogen-resistant steel instead of the unalloyed steel used. Ammonia Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... It is believed that, in the initial stages, solution of the copper-zinc alloy takes place, this being followed by a secondary reaction resulting in the elector-chemical redeposition of the copper. The net result of the process is that sound metal is gradually replaced by a brittle, porous deposit of copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... precipitation. The transgranular cracks indicated that failure was due partly to stress-corrosion. It was concluded that the chlorides provided the main corrodent for both the stress and intercrystalline-corrosion cracking. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Corrosion environments Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0046953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...), which exceeded normal operating temperatures, and carburization was not the principal cause of failure. No recommendations were made. Chemical reactors Melting Overheating Hastelloy X UNS N06002 (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A portion of the wall of a reactor vessel used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4