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chemical potential

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract A paper drier head manufactured from gray cast iron was removed from service as a result of NDE detection of crack-like surface discontinuities. This component was subjected to internal steam pressure to provide heat energy for drying. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surface of the tube were identified as fluorides from the brazing flux by chemical analysis. The nature of the crack, potential for corrosion due to residual fluorides and residual swaging stress in the tube prior to brazing, confirmed that failure of the tube end was due to stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source was photographic silver...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... of gates. Due to the age of the gear and the time frame of its manufacture, no original material specifications or strength requirements could be located. Likewise, no maintenance records of possible repairs to the gear were available. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, tension...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination of specimens etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also conducted, along with simulation tests to assess the role of alkali chlorides in the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract The lifetime assessment of polymeric products is complicated, and if the methodology utilized leads to inaccurate predictions, the mistakes could lead to financial loss as well as potential loss of life, depending on the service application of the product. This article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... connections. Neighboring parts in an assembly also have the potential to impact product durability, for example, through the introduction of chemicals that are incompatible. These chemicals may be introduced as leaching plasticizers, processing chemicals, lubricants, and more. Cross-contamination risk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... plan sampling and chemical analysis techniques while evidence in the subject parts is in the most pristine condition. During the course of an investigation, there is potential for incidental contamination, even during the nondestructive portion of the investigation, from handling, storage, and further...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Radial cracking occurred adjacent to 11 vanes in a 19-vane impeller operating in a chemical plant environment. The impeller vanes were fillet welded to both the disk and the cover Cracks were next to the fillet welds and near the cover outer diameter They generally did not extend...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... corrosion rates. The presence of Fe 3+ polarizes the zirconium surface to a potential exceeding the pitting potential, which leads to localized breakdown of the protective passive film and corrosion pitting. 2 Fig. 11 EDS chemical analysis of the black deposit within a linear defect reveals high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for product improvements. Ideally, this will be the “root” cause, that is, the most basic source of the failure without which the failure would not have occurred. Several types of failures and their potential causes are provided in Table 2 . Failures in plastics and potential causes Table 2 Failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the potential for water carryover or feedwater induction into the turbine be addressed via an engineering evaluation of the plant's water treatment procedures, steam separation equipment, and start-up procedures. Chlorides Feedwater Turbine blades Water chemistry ASTM A470 grade 4 UNS K22878 Pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to lower corrosion rates is a common practice in municipal and industrial water supplies. The chemicals that may be introduced are limited for public health reasons. Pourbaix diagrams are used to predict material behavior with the adjustment of the pH. Pourbaix diagrams show the conditions of potential...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metals, etc.) for cell renewal and growth. An understanding of these factors can sometimes help in failure investigations. Energy may be derived from sunlight through photosynthesis or from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthetic metabolism is limited in the context of this article to above...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., procedures, and implementation. Parts can pass tests with exceptional performance, but products can fail because the trial was focused on the wrong potential failure mode. Chemical Resistance Chemical degradation is one of the most evasive causes of potential failures of plastics that often...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract Socket head cap screws used in a naval application were failing in service due to delayed fracture. The standard ASTM A 574 screws were zinc plated and dichromate coated. Investigation (visual inspection, 1187 SEM images, chemical analysis, and tension testing) of both the failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., the carbon combines with the chromium, which is immediately adjacent to the grain boundaries, and produces a region whose chromium content may also decrease below 12 wt-% (the minimum chromium content so that a steel may be considered a stainless steel). According to this, a potential difference sets up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of solution-annealed type 304L stainless steel. 142.2×. Chemical Analysis/Identification The chemical composition of the tank material was as follows: 0.024% C, 18.00% Cr, 10.23% Ni, 1.10% Mn, 0.65% Si, 0.028% P and 0.015% S, with the balance iron. Samples of water collected from the tanks were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and marginally increased the rupture ductility. This increase in rupture ductility was thought to be due to the reduction of phosphorus at grain boundaries. Experimental Techniques The studs were manufactured to the French specification 28CDV5-08 and this together with the bulk chemical composition of two...