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chemical polishing

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Some 99.90 pure tin tubes (0.15 mm thick) used for packaging a chemical compound cracked on bending and underwent brittle fracture prior to filling, while others remained ductile and showed no sign of failure. Examination showed that specimens prepared by mechanical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract A paper drier head manufactured from gray cast iron was removed from service as a result of NDE detection of crack-like surface discontinuities. This component was subjected to internal steam pressure to provide heat energy for drying. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A corrosion resistant chromium nickel steel (X 2 Cr-Ni-Mo 18 10) worm drive used in a chemical plant at 80 deg C and 100 to 200 atm pressure to transport media containing chloride failed during normal operation. Visual inspections showed that the entire surface of the gear was covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the hollow shaft was exposed to hydraulic oil at temperatures of 0 to 80 deg C (30 to 180 deg F). Analysis (visual inspection, 15-30x low magnification examination, 4x light fractograph, chemical analysis, hardness testing) supported the conclusions that the shaft cracked in a region subjected to severe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... — — — — 18.9 16.5 1.0 1.2 — — — 1.5 Fe balance The chemical compositions of the inclusions observed on the polished surfaces of specimens A and B are given in Tables 2 and 3 , respectively. Almost all the inclusions in rings A and B were rich in chromium and aluminum; the concentration...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to reveal detectable indications. The indications were not considered serious enough to reject the forgings. A few small indications in the areas tested were revealed by magnetic particle inspection. The area was conditioned by grinding and polishing to obtain an additional inspection at a greater depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... flat fracture surfaces with no apparent yielding, but the two large segments did show evidence of bending (yielding) near the fractures. In addition, some segments contained fine radial cracks. Analysis (visual inspection, optical microscopy on polished-and-etched specimens, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the presence of numerous slag stringers. The polished specimen was then etched with 5% nital. A marked banded structure was evident even macroscopically ( Fig. 1b ). Microscopic examination revealed that the pattern was due to severe chemical segregation or banding ( Fig. 1c ). Hardness measurements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... tubing. Examination of etched samples was performed after chemical etching of the previously polished surfaces with 50 vol% HCI, 16 vol% H 2 O 2 , and 34 vol% H 2 O. The etched microstructure of the curved sample is shown in Fig. 5 , which illustrates the intergranular nature of the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., was recommended to prevent chloride buildup. Painting of the steel surface with an epoxy-phenolic or epoxy-coal tar was also suggested. Chemical processing industry Columns (process) Marine environments 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Pitting corrosion Background A type 316 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A T-piece from a copper hot water system failed. Microscopic examination of a polished section revealed a main crack and branching transcrystalline cracks running from the outer surface of the pipe into the pipe wall. The crack appearance indicated disintegration by stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to determine the component’s chemical composition was conducted via certified optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Axial and transverse sections from the right-side fork leg were cold mounted in resin for metallographic inspection. The metallographic mounts were polished and etched in order to view...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Brass pipe couplings submitted for examination were deep-drawn from disks then annealed and subsequently cold threaded. Chemical analysis confirmed that the specified alloy Ms 63 was used for fabrication. Some of the pipe already showed fine cracks prior to their installation. In most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The presence of this active chemical reagent increases the removal rate of pre-existing abrasion and polishing damage of the specimen and provides a superior final surface finish over mechanical polishing alone [ 2 ]. (Note: Extreme care and safety precautions must be exercised when using this type of reagent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A number of machined end frame steel forgings made of Cr-Si-Mn alloy showed tiny cracks during magnetic particle inspection after heat treatment. The cracks were mostly confined to base edges and fillet radius. No significant abnormality was observed in chemical composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... polycarbonate ophthalmic lenses were inadvertently substituted for plastic-framed polycarbonate ophthalmic lenses for use as prescription safety glasses in a chemical laboratory. Circumstances Leading Up to the Failure A laboratory accident resulted in an unknown splashed solvent on metal-framed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... A section was removed from an area of the steam turbine disc segment which did not exhibit visible damage. This sample was mounted, ground, polished, and etched for metallographic examination and photographic documentation. The photomicrographs in Fig. 3 show the typical turbine disc microstructure at two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract Several type 304 stainless steel fire truck water tanks developed through-wall leaks after being in service for approximately two years. One representative tank underwent a comprehensive laboratory analysis, which included metallographic examinations and chemical analyses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., to determine which contained the least-harmful corrosive chemicals. Chlorides Heat exchangers Seamless tubes Turbogenerators C44300 UNS C44300 Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Extensive cracking was found in a batch of die-cast ZAMAK 3 solenoid valve seats during commissioning of the system in which they were installed. Scanning electron microscopic and chemical analyses conducted on one of the failed valve seats showed that the composition of the alloy...