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chemical kinetics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... A. , Non–Equilibrium Glassy Properties and Their Relevance in Case II Transport Kinetics , Polymer , Vol 21 , 1980 , p 1031 10.1016/0032-3861(80)90033-6 18. Tonyali K. , Organic Chemical Related Failure , Engineered Materials Handbook Volume 2: Engineering Plastics , ASM International...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... using a high-energy-resolution spectrum. Subtle differences in the kinetic energy or shape of the Auger peak position will provide chemical-state information ( Fig. 3 ). Mathematical routines such as target factor analysis, principal component analysis, and linear least-squares fitting (when reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.../mol (15.2 kcal/mol) ( Ref 28 ). The data were shifted to a reference temperature of 140 °C (285 °F) ( T 1 in Eq 3 ). Figure 16 clearly shows the reaction under chemical control (master curve, solid line). Only the chemically controlled reaction, which follows Arrhenius kinetics, is subject...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is then used to establish its elemental identity and chemical state. The incoming x-rays penetrate microns into the surface of the sample. However, the escape depths for these low-kinetic-energy (less than 1500 eV) photoelectrons are less than 10 nm, thus making XPS an extremely surface-sensitive technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) auger electron microscopy, (iii) electro-chemical polarisation kinetic reactivation, EPR and (iv) the small punch test. It was observed that a significant relationship existed between ambient temperature charpy impact energies and the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation expressed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... : A physical and chemical examination of an ethylene steam cracker coke and of the underlying pyrolysis tube . J. Mater. Sci. 20 , 4035 – 4044 ( 1985 ) 11. Mitchell D.R.G. , Young D.J. : A kinetic and morphological study of the coking of some heat-resistant steels . J. Mater. Sci. 29...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and the collapse of vapor bubbles producing microjets of high kinetic energy, which is common in hydraulic machinery such as pumps, turbines, and propellers. The pressure waves are released by the collapse of vapor structures which interact with solid surfaces and lead to material damage. This phenomenon results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... known as photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) are used to analyze the surface chemistry of plastics. Characterization and surface analysis of plastic specimens can be divided into two categories: one based on examination of surface topography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the kinetics of the reaction tend to slow to zero, stopping any further transition. Even when exposed to temperature below 55 °F, a ‘seed’ is needed to initiate the tin pest process. Seeds that initiate it are said to range from particles of alpha tin (i.e., pested tin) to some solvents [ 2 ]. Several...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of input energy is known, transition temperatures and reaction kinetics can be determined with great precision. In TGA, a pre-weighed sample is placed on a microbalance in an environmentally controlled oven. From the weight loss of the sample as a function of temperature or time under isothermal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by aging at higher temperatures (650–900 °C) and longer periods (30 min to 8 h), and the kinetics of the reaction to form σ phase are slower than for Cr 2 N precipitation [ 3 , 5 ]. Austenitic stainless steels have many outstanding properties, apart from a high resistance to corrosion in many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... properties (i.e., stiffness, strength, and hardness). Water permeates all polymeric materials to a greater or lesser degree; moisture-absorption kinetics differ widely between different grades of material and with chemical aging. Depending on the nature of the polymer, considerable quantities of moisture may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was also present on the bottom or the cell. SEM/EDX studies of the outer and inner surfaces of the gouged anode showed the presence of iron globules at the interface between the gouged and the unattacked anode. The chemical composition of the black powder was determined to be primarily iron. Cell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... case, nitriding and embrittlement occurred at temperatures as low as 300 to 400 deg C (determined from an examination of the oxidation of the Zircaloy-2 carrier rod on which the detectors were mounted). Recent results are described and discussed in terms of the oxidation and nitriding kinetics...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... inclusion. Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography The scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly showed spherical inclusions at all of the origins ( Fig. 2b ). Chemical Analysis/Identification Material An energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis was performed on the inclusions remaining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with a better understanding of how to evaluate and prevent it. It then presents factors that affect and contribute to the susceptibility of plastic to ESC: material factors, chemical factors, stress, and environmental factors. The article includes the collection of background information to understand...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the thermal properties of engineering plastics and elastomers with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and base polymer conformation as determined by thermal analysis. It describes the processing of base polymers with or without additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... four of the eight major aging mechanisms, namely environmental stress cracking, chemical degradation, creep, and fatigue, as well as the methods used in product service lifetime assessment for them. Later, several methods of service lifetime prediction that have gained industry-wide acceptance, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the identification of the mode of degradation, whether it is mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, or a combination of several factors. The failure analysis can be complex, because more than one failure mechanism could be operative. The education and experience of the failure analyst augments the failure...