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chemical kinetics

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... consistency in the spectral energy scale when using different x-ray energies, the data are displayed on a binding energy rather than kinetic energy scale. The binding energy associated with a peak is then used to establish its elemental identity and chemical state. The incoming x-rays penetrate micrometers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is then used to establish its elemental identity and chemical state. The incoming x-rays penetrate microns into the surface of the sample. However, the escape depths for these low-kinetic-energy (less than 1500 eV) photoelectrons are less than 10 nm, thus making XPS an extremely surface-sensitive technique...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... microscopy, (iii) electro-chemical polarisation kinetic reactivation, EPR and (iv) the small punch test. It was observed that a significant relationship existed between ambient temperature charpy impact energies and the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation expressed as a % of a monolayer. At low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... International , Materials Park ( 1998 ) 10.1361/105994998770347549 4. Smith G.M. , Young D.J. , Trimm D.L. : Carburization kinetics of heat resistant steels . Oxid. Met. 18 ( 5/6 ), 229 – 243 ( 1982 ) 10.1007/BF00656570 5. ASM Handbook . Metallography and Microstructures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) UNS G10300 Introduction Experimental Discussion Conclusion References References 1. Cudina M. , Prezelj J. : Detection of cavitation in operation of kinetic pumps. Use of discrete frequency . Appl. Acoust. 70 , 540 – 546 ( 2009 ) 10.1016/j.apacoust.2008.07.005...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... and Hoyt W.B. , Chemical Thermodynamics of High Temperature Reactions in Metal Dusting Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 19 , 1963 , p 360t 10.5006/0010-9312-19.10.360 14. Grabke H.J. , Krajak R. , and Müller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of High Temperature Alloys , Mater. Corros...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Visual Examination SEM/EDS Chemical Analysis XRD Discussion Tin Pest and RoHS Summary References References 1. Eckert A. : Organ pipes and tin pest . Mater. Corros. 59 ( 3 ), 254 – 260 ( 2008 ) 10.1002/maco.200804151 2. Lasky R.C. : Tin pest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... case, nitriding and embrittlement occurred at temperatures as low as 300 to 400 deg C (determined from an examination of the oxidation of the Zircaloy-2 carrier rod on which the detectors were mounted). Recent results are described and discussed in terms of the oxidation and nitriding kinetics...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Calculations Thermal Stability Melting Behavior and the Use of Phase Diagrams Kinetic Considerations Penetration Basic Refractories Industrial Refractories Oxidation and Reduction Behavior Corrosion of Specific Classes of Refractories and Technical Ceramics Structural or Chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The overall fracture pattern looked like a starburst pointing to the origin of fracture, which never occurred at the edges of the glass sheet. A fracture origin at the edge of the glass would be expected if the breakage were related to thermal stresses. Surface Examination Chemical Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of black powder was also present on the bottom or the cell. SEM/EDX studies of the outer and inner surfaces of the gouged anode showed the presence of iron globules at the interface between the gouged and the unattacked anode. The chemical composition of the black powder was determined to be primarily iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of input energy is known, transition temperatures and reaction kinetics can be determined with great precision. In TGA, a pre-weighed sample is placed on a microbalance in an environmentally controlled oven. From the weight loss of the sample as a function of temperature or time under isothermal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... W.B. , Chemical Thermodynamics of High Temperature Reactions in Metal Dusting Corrosion , Corrosion , Vol 19 , 1963 , p 360t 11. Grabke H.J. , Krajak R. , and Müller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of High Temperature Alloys , Mater. Corros. , Vol 44 , 1993 , p 89...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... thermomechanical fatigue testing. Image shows surface oxidation at bottom and oxide spike forming in the center of the specimen. Chemical etchant used highlights aluminum in the microstructure. Microstructure shown as white in image is depleted of aluminum as a result of aluminum diffusion to surface. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the decomposition of ferrite and also increases the volume fraction of austenite. This σ phase reaction is favored by aging at higher temperatures (650–900 °C) and longer periods (30 min to 8 h), and the kinetics of the reaction to form σ phase are slower than for Cr 2 N precipitation [ 3 , 5 ]. Austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... in the neutralizer vessel. Ammonium compounds Chemical processing equipment Explosions Fires Nitrates Spargers Titanium (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure A Case Study from the files of Dr. Charles Rau On 13 December 1994, two massive detonations leveled portions of an ammonium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of grinding media in an industry where over 0.9 Mg (1 × 10 9 tons) of ore are crushed annually ( Ref 5 ). Wear debris and corrosion products that are formed during comminution affect product quality and can adversely affect subsequent beneficiation by altering the chemical and electrochemical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the roughing process of steels with and without Nb Fig. 2 Evolution of recrystallization kinetics during the finishing passes of steels with and without Nb The specified chemical composition for this steel (in wt.%) according to the Euronorm is as follows: C 0.168, Mn 1.361, Si 0.453, P 0.022...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, etc.) for cell renewal and growth. An understanding of these factors can sometimes help in failure investigations. Energy may be derived from sunlight through photosynthesis or from chemical reactions. The importance of photosynthetic metabolism is limited in the context...