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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... water passage) of the spiral element near the outer shell and flows through the spiral passage until it reaches a collection header at the center of the spiral element. Distillation towers are used in the chemical industry to separate mixtures of chemicals. The chemicals inside the distillation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., Imperial Chemical Industries , Cleveland, U.K. , Oct 1986 , p 405 – 414 . 2. Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , Vol 3 , Properties and Selection: Stainless Steels, Tool Materials and Special Purpose Metals , American Society for Metals , 1980 , p 214 . Selected References Selected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the eight major aging mechanisms, namely environmental stress cracking, chemical degradation, creep, and fatigue, as well as the methods used in product service lifetime assessment for them. Later, several methods of service lifetime prediction that have gained industry-wide acceptance, namely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... chemical substances, and the large variation in processes accomplished. The present work deals with failure analysis and determination of the cause of damage of a component used in this highly demanding industry. The component under examination, shown in Fig. 1 , is a bent tube (elbow) that is used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... zirconium impellers were submitted to IMR Test Labs (a division of Ithaca Materials Research) for post-service materials analysis. Both impellers were utilized in chemical industry circulation pump applications in the Mid-East. Analysis of the aqueous acidic pumpage reveals 50 g/L HCl, 3 g/L MgCl 2 , 3 g/L...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to lower corrosion rates is a common practice in municipal and industrial water supplies. The chemicals that may be introduced are limited for public health reasons. Pourbaix diagrams are used to predict material behavior with the adjustment of the pH. Pourbaix diagrams show the conditions of potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can appear as discoloration, crazing, and softening to complete breakdown of the polymeric materials. The most common environments that cause degradation of polymers are ultraviolet radiation, industrial chemicals, humidity, ozone and oxygen, microorganisms, and temperature. A combination of two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Results of chemical analysis Table 1 Results of chemical analysis Element Composition, % Base metal X-40 nominal requirements (a) Carbon 0.51 0.50 Manganese <0.01 0.75 Phosphorus 0.007 NR Sulfur <0.005 NR Silicon 0.54 0.75 Nickel 12.53 10.50...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... as the good bearing ran for seven years in a lubricated industrial condition while the other designated as the failed bearing lasted for only about seven days in the same condition. Both bearing materials were characterized in terms of their chemical analysis, microstructure, and hardness. The principal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: Environments and Industries . ASM International , Materials Park ( 2006 ) 2. Khajavi M.R. , Shariat M.H. : Failure of first stage gas turbine blades . Eng. Fail. Anal . 11 , 589 – 597 ( 2004 ) 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2003.08.010 3. Singh H. , Puri D. , Prakash S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical species present on the electrical connectors Table 1 Chemical species present on the electrical connectors Species Mass (μg) Chloride 28 Nitrate 4.3 Nitrite 0.6 Sulfate 48 Fig. 6 Image of exemplar connectors after mercurous nitrate testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... products ( Fig. 4 ). Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is one of the major contributors to the failures in petrochemical industries that deal with potentially aggressive chemical species. SCC is reported to be the principal mode of failure of plant equipment in oil industries, and accounts for about 25...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Stress Corrosion Cracking in the Chemical Process Industries , Materials Technology Institute of the Chemical Process Industries , Columbus, OH , 1985 , p. 41 . Selected References Selected References • French D.N. , Failures of Boilers and Related Equipment , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical composition of duplex stainless steel Table 1 Chemical composition of duplex stainless steel C Si Mn P S Cr Ni N Mo V Cu W Co Fe 0.02 0.52 1.85 0.02 0.001 23.00 5.7 0.19 3.28 0.07 0.13 0.02 0.02 bal Chemical composition of austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or lubricants. Corrosion Inhibitors Corrosion inhibitors are chemicals introduced into industrial systems to reduce the rate of metal loss. In some cases, these chemicals act as nutrients for MIC problems and are destroyed through biodegradation. In a long-term audit of water recycle systems in a large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Hydrotesting of new pipework and reservoirs in the petroleum industry and in chemical processing plants is conveniently achieved by using water pressure. A pump is used to force water through the pipes to a valve that controls the fluid pressure and flow. Drops in pressure over a set period of time, as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... for cavity nucleation Relatively low values of the hardness and tensile strength ( Table 2 ), associated with a decrease in the mechanical resistance of the weld. Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Crack propagation Furnaces Heat-resistant steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... opportunities to improve operating processes and procedures related to the management of system integrity. Industry experience with corrosion-resistant alloys of steel, copper, and aluminum is reviewed. The article ends with a discussion on monitoring and preventing microbiologically influenced corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Hay J.N. and Kemmish D.J. , Polymer , Vol 29 , 1988 , p 613 10.1016/0032-3861(88)90074-2 13. Ebnesajjad S. and Khaladkar P.R. , Fluoropolymer Applications in the Chemical Processing Industries—The Definitive User’s Guide and Databook , Elsevier Inc. , 2004 14...