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chemical etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... milled section of the floor. An alkaline etch-type cleaner was used on the panels before chemical milling and before painting. Various tests and measurements indicated that the aluminum alloy used for the fuel-tank floors conformed to the specifications for 7178-T6. Low power magnification, fractographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of baking operations reduced the mechanical properties of the spar. The reduced mechanical properties further contributed to the fatigue process. Chemical etching Fatigue strength Mechanical properties Rotor blades 7075-T7351 UNS A97075 Pitting corrosion Fatigue fracture Surface treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... revealed a thick oxide layer covering the entire region. Higher magnification inspection disclosed substantial mud cracking along the internal diameter near the origin. Chemical etching of the oxide layer around the origin divulged intergranular separation typical of stress corrosion in aluminum ( figure 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A 1-in. diam pump spindle fractured within the length covered by the boss of the impeller which was attached to the spindle by means of an axial screw. The pump had been in use in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulfuric acid having a pH value of 2 to 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090965
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, unetched 30x images, and 2% nital etched 30x images) was difficult because the fracture surface of the frame section was obliterated by postfracture corrosion. Repeated attempts at cleaning using progressively stronger chemicals revealed that no telltale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Some 99.90 pure tin tubes (0.15 mm thick) used for packaging a chemical compound cracked on bending and underwent brittle fracture prior to filling, while others remained ductile and showed no sign of failure. Examination showed that specimens prepared by mechanical methods...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... variations in response to heat treatment with resulting variations in hardness. Chemical etching is very sensitive to alloy segregation ( Fig. 32 ). Fig. 32 (a) Lighter and darker etching areas of 4340 alloy steel show nonuniform distribution of alloying elements. Nital etch. (b) Chemically etched 304...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... strength range was 1689 to 1793 MPa (245 to 260 ksi). The finished springs were to be shot peened for greater fatigue resistance. Investigation (visual inspection, 3x images, 2% nital etched 148x SEM images, chemical analysis, hardness testing, and EDS analysis) supported the conclusion that the springs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... after it broke, which resulted in extensive loss of metal between the holes. 80x micrograph and 4x macrograph of a 5% nital etched longitudinal section, and chemical analyses showed the poppet did fit 1213 or 1215 specs. However, hardness measurements showed surface hardness was excessive-61 to 65 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... because of unrelated tube failures. Sanitary (chlorinated) well water was generally used in the system, although filtered process make-up water (river water) containing ammonia was occasionally used. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, mercurous nitrate testing, unetched 5X micrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A corrosion resistant chromium nickel steel (X 2 Cr-Ni-Mo 18 10) worm drive used in a chemical plant at 80 deg C and 100 to 200 atm pressure to transport media containing chloride failed during normal operation. Visual inspections showed that the entire surface of the gear was covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... A failure analysis was requested to determine the cause of fracture. Two hooks were submitted for examination. Analysis (visual inspection, 2.7x light fractography, chemical analysis, 110x SEM fractography, 27x/110x/215x nital-etched micrographs) supported the conclusions that this component fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... DL heat-resisting alloy. The operating temperature of the duct surrounded by the clamp was 425 to 540 deg C (800 to 1000 deg F). The life of the clamp was expected to equal that of the aircraft. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness testing, and 540x/2700x images etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0090974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... at the time of failure were characterized as relatively cold. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, and unetched 119x and 2% nital etched 119x SEM images) supported the conclusion that the bracket failed through brittle overload fracture due to a number of synergistic factors. The quenched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... flat fracture surfaces with no apparent yielding, but the two large segments did show evidence of bending (yielding) near the fractures. In addition, some segments contained fine radial cracks. Analysis (visual inspection, optical microscopy on polished-and-etched specimens, hardness testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... welds joining 200 mm (8 in.) diam 90 deg elbows and pipe to 200 mm (8 in.) diam welding-neck flanges. A flange-elbow-flange assembly and a flange-pipe assembly that had leaked were removed for examination. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, chemical analysis, magnetic-particle testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... weld was 0.54%, whereas that of the submerged arc weld was 0.86%. After being weighed, the specimens were submerged in molten zinc for 850 h. Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, 100x 2% nital-etched micrographs) supported the conclusions that the vat failed due to molten-zinc corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sulfur, mainly from the flue gas, and calcium and chlorine, mainly from the sea water. The gray corrosion product was interspersed with rust and a black carbonaceous deposit. Corrosion pitting and poor weld penetration, with carbide precipitation and heavy etching at grain boundaries, indicated...