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chemical equilibrium

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, weathering, liquid chemicals (i.e., alkalis and acids), ionizing radiation, and biological degradation, along with the combined effects of mechanical stress, temperature, and moisture (including environmental stress corrosion). The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... solid, but the elongation at break increases. Fracture processes may not occur at the equilibrium swelling. Figure 2 shows that the absorbed amount of alcohol present in PMMA can substantially reduce tensile yield stress ( Ref 30 ). Plastics are permeable to organic chemicals to varying...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and potassium chloride. As the steam expands through the turbine, the solubility of the corrosive chemicals decreases. When the solubility limit is reached the chemicals precipitate into droplets of concentrated solutions which are in equilibrium with the steam. Chemicals such as sodium hydroxide are in a class...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The failure occurred as cracking through the vessel wall, resulting in leakage of the fluid. The tank had been molded from a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. The material held within the vessel was an aromatic hydrocarbon-based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to be completely martensitic. Thus, the failure was due to hardening of the base material during welding, and recommendation was made to temper or anneal the welded regions to reduce the effects of hydrogen under pressure. Ammonia Chemical processing equipment Heat exchangers Post heating Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Chemical analysis Table 1 Chemical analysis Element Specification AMS 5596 range, wt% Composition of individual leafs, wt% Leaf Number 1 2 3 6 7 Nickel 50–55 53.1 52.3 52.6 52.4 52.7 Chromium 17–21 18.4 18.6 18.5 18.6 18.5 Columbium + Tantalum 4.75...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical composition of the pipe material Table 1 Chemical composition of the pipe material Chemical composition, wt.% Elements Sample Standard material 28Cr3SiNiWMoV Fe Balance Balance Cr 2.9 2.8–3.2 Ni 1.0 0.8–1.2 W 0.7 0.8–1.2 Mo 0.8 0.35–0.55 V 0.2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Comparing the results obtained by different investigations reported in the literature it can be concluded that the causes for the steel susceptibility to intercrystalline corrosion may be quite different, but all of them involve precipitation at the grain boundaries of a surplus phase (non-equilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...Water absorption values for selected polymers Table 1 Water absorption values for selected polymers Polymer 24 hours, % Equilibrium, % Cellulose Acetate 1.7 7.0 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) 0.01 0.5 Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) 0.01 0.1 Polyamide (PA 6) 3.0...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... Requirements for Chemical Composition of UNS N08810 and Results Obtained for the Transfer Line Table 1 Requirements for Chemical Composition of UNS N08810 and Results Obtained for the Transfer Line Element N08810 Transfer line Nickel 30.0–35.0 31.2 Chromium 19.0–23.0 19.6 Iron 39.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... Internal view. 0.2 × Fig. 3 Sections through crankcase. 0.25 × a. Old design. b. New design. Fig. 4 Section from Fig. 3 . 1 × It remained to be examined whether the cracking was promoted by material defects. A chemical analysis of the castings gave the following composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Properties of Polymers , Elsevier , 1976 , p 67 , 395 6. Modern Plastics Encyclopedia , Vol 59 ( No. 10A ), Plastics Catalogue Corporation , Oct 1982 , p 466 7. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics , 4th ed. , Chemical Rubber Publishing Company , 1958 , p 2239 8. Kubát J...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Visual Examination of General Physical Features Chemical Analysis/Identification Metallography Microstructural Analysis Macrofractography Surface Examination Visual All of the fracture edges exhibited extensive wall thinning. Stereomicroscopic examination of the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... A close-up of representative cracks is presented in Fig. 6 . The entire segment showed evidence of corrosion/oxidation products. The residue collected from the surface was analyzed for chemical composition using SEM EDS. The analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the residue contained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the part was routinely exposed to alternating hot and cold cycles. The fluid passing through the flow sensor had ranged from 40 to 200 °F (4 to 93 °C). Cleaning agents, including chlorine-based and acid-based chemicals, had also been put through the sensor. In addition to the failed part, a typical sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the previous section, the chemical reactions start immediately after mixing. Figure 32 shows a schematic of the steady-shear viscosity (η), the complex viscosity (η*), and the equilibrium modulus ( G e ) as a function of time for a thermoset cure. Note the similarity of Fig. 32 to Fig. 8 , but with cure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Additionally, plastic resins usually contain additives, such as reinforcing fillers, plasticizers, colorants, antidegradants, and process aids. It is this combination of molecular structure and complex formulation that requires specialized testing ( Ref 2 ). While the chemical composition of a failed metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... identification, contamination, degradation, chemical contact Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Heat of fusion, melting point, glass transition temperature, heat capacity Material identification, level of crystallinity, aging/degradation, thermal history Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Weight loss...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and nonphthalate types of plasticizers Types of plasticizers Chemical composition Commercial name Application Phthalates Di- n -butylphthalates (DBP) Palatinol C (BASF Corp.) KLJ-DBP (KLJ Group) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), rubber, bioplastic, cellulosic polymers Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Eastman...