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chemical corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091690
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... equipment Electric fuses Ferrules Humidity C27000 UNS C27000 Stress-corrosion cracking A substantial number of copper alloy C27000 (yellow brass, 65Cu-35Zn) ferrules for electrical fuses cracked while in storage and while in service in paper mills and other chemical processing plants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... material was recommended to avoid future failures and loss of service. Chemical processing equipment Chlorides Eddy current testing Evaporators Tubes 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The failure was initially thought to be the result of thermal fatigue, and the internal surfaces exhibited the “elephant hide” pattern characteristic of thermal fatigue. However metallographic failure analysis found that this pattern was the result of corrosion rather than thermal fatigue. Corrosion caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the inteiiors are polished to match the finish of the original steel, and great care is taken to avoid the formation of scratches and crevices that could serve as initation sites for corrosion. Often, however, the chemicals being hauled are not pure and contain contaminants that attack the stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to stagnant water on the shell side. It was recommended that the surfaces not be kept in contacts with closed stagnant water for appreciable lengths of time. Chemical processing equipment Condenser tubes, corrosion Condensers 316 UNS S31600 Pitting corrosion Background Several tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... this mode of cracking. It was recommended that weld seams be furnace heat treated at a temperature of 600 to 640 deg C (1110 to 1180 deg F) for a minimum of 1 h per inch of section thickness. Chemical processing equipment Heat-affected zone Pipe, corrosion Repair welding Welded joints, corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the structural ceramics used in gas turbine components, the automotive and aerospace industries, or as heat exchangers in various segments of the chemical and power generation industries. It covers the fundamental aspects of chemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Thermal fatigue fracture Crevice corrosion In recent years, there has been a growing application of reactive metals in the processing equipment in chemical, petroleum, and power industries. Commercially pure titanium with desirable engineering properties as well as excellent corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...) in conjunction with a chemical corrosion inhibition program; 2) in conjunction with a protective coating; and 3) without any protection from the service environment. Cases are summarized along with the details of the failure analysis. 2.1 Role of the Microstructure 2.1.1 Observation Three sucker rods...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in chemical process streams. All of the above reactions are quite similar; they consume electrons. The above partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed in water or seawater that is exposed to the atmosphere...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of hot corrosion caused by a combination of contaminants, cooling-hole blockage, and coating loss. Hot gas corrosion X-40 UNS R30031 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background The first-stage nozzles of a high-pressure turbine (HPT) section of an industrial gas turbine exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of waterside corrosion and influencing the useful life of the tube material. The corrosion resistance of the boiler tube depends on the pH level of the feed water and the amount of contaminants present. Before a boiler is placed into operation, a chemical washing is done to grow a continuous, dense...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... However, the investigation (which included visual, macroscopic, metallographic, SEM, and chemical analysis) showed that austenitic stainless steel and a nickel-base alloy were used instead. The unspecified materials are more prone to corrosion, particularly galvanic corrosion, which proved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., corrosion Chemical processing equipment, corrosion Hot gas corrosion ASME SA193-B7 ASME SA194-214 4140 UNS G41400 Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Stress-corrosion cracking Background A tied universal expansion joint failed. Applications The 610 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Inhibited admiralty brass (UNS C44300) condenser tubes used in a natural-gas-fired cogeneration plant failed during testing. Two samples, one from a leaking tube and the other from an on leaking tube, were examined. Chemical analyses were conducted on the tubes and corrosion deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... installations were examined. It was found that fracture of the bolts was by intergranular stress corrosion. A metallic copper-containing antiseizure compound on the bolts in a corrosive medium set up an electro-chemical cell that produced trenchlike fissures or pits for fracture initiation. Because the bolts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reactions and are most frequently found in chemical process streams. All the aforementioned reactions are quite similar: they consume electrons. The aforementioned partial reactions can be used to interpret virtually all electrochemical corrosion problems. Consider what happens when iron is immersed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking caused by a corrosive atmosphere. Chemical processing equipment Weldments ASTM A294 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Radial cracking occurred adjacent to 11 vanes in a 19-vane ASTM A-294 impeller. The vanes were fillet welded to both the disk...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... been reported in refineries and chemical plants. These cases involve intense corrosive activity, SCC, and/or hydrogen-induced cracking of Monel 400. Failures of this alloy can be grouped in four categories: Corrosion by hypochlorous acid (HClO) [1] or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). [2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... corrosion through galvanic effects and can promote hydrogen damage. Ultrasonic testing was recommended to locate tubes with severe gouging and corrosion, which are suspect locations for hydrogen damage. The source of the copper should be identified and future chemical cleaning of the boiler should address...