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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the specified procedure for chemical cleaning of the tanks in preparation for potable water storage. The sodium hypochlorite sterilizing solution used was three times the prescribed strength, and the process exposed the bottom of the tanks to hypochlorite solution that had collected near the outlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Acidic conditions may have formed during a low-pH excursion that reportedly occurred several years prior. To prevent future failures, severely damaged tubing must be replaced. Internal deposit buildup must be removed by chemical cleaning to prevent further pitting. Water quality needs continued...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was recommended to locate tubes with severe gouging and corrosion, which are suspect locations for hydrogen damage. The source of the copper should be identified and future chemical cleaning of the boiler should address its presence in the waterwall tubes. Selected References Selected References...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conclusion that that the deposits formed at locations that experienced steam blanketing or dryout at the higher levels of the steam generators. Recommendations included steam generator water-chemistry controls, chemical cleaning, and reduction of the primary reactor coolant system temperature. Electric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-Corrosion Cracking , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 823 – 860 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553 Simulated Chemical Cleaning Conclusion and Recommendations Most Probable Cause Remedial Action How Failure Could Have Been Prevented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and careful inspection following alkaline-etch cleaning, to be scheduled before release of the floor panels for painting. Aircraft components Chemical milling Floors Fuel tanks 7178-T6 UNS A97178 Fatigue fracture The floors of the fuel tanks in two aircraft failed almost identically after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090965
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, unetched 30x images, and 2% nital etched 30x images) was difficult because the fracture surface of the frame section was obliterated by postfracture corrosion. Repeated attempts at cleaning using progressively stronger chemicals revealed that no telltale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Chemical analysis Table 1 Chemical analysis Element Recommended analysis per DIN 267 ( Ref 1 ) Specified analysis for AISI 4140 Specified analysis for 42 CrMo 4 Carbon 0.19 to 0.52 0.38 to 0.43 0.38 to 0.45 Manganese … 0.75 to 1.00 0.50 to 0.80 Surface 0.05 max 0.035...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surface of the tube were identified as fluorides from the brazing flux by chemical analysis. The nature of the crack, potential for corrosion due to residual fluorides and residual swaging stress in the tube prior to brazing, confirmed that failure of the tube end was due to stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Problems with materials compatibility were encountered in pyrotechnically driven devices used in a number of ordnance applications requiring rapid mechanical actuation. A fine bridgewire is located in contact with the chemical pyrotechnic, and the charge is ignited by electrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed crack-like indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material was phosphorus-deoxidized copper. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the exteriors of the parts were clean and smooth, and there was evidence of a case. Examination of the flat surfaces of the parts revealed surface cracking where actual failure had not occurred. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a low-alloy carburizing steel. The microstructure was compatible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... (790 deg F). Metallographic sections, energy-dispersive x-ray spectra, chemical analyses, tensile tests, and Auger microscope analyses showed the failed bellows met the specifications for the material. However, investigation also showed entire oxide thickness was contaminated with relatively large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A steam-condensate line (type 316 stainless steel tubing) began leaking after five to six years in service. The line carried steam condensate at 120 deg C (250 deg F) with a two hour heat-up/cool-down cycle. No chemical treatment had been given to either the condensate or the boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0048303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...)(20 + log t ) for SA-213, grade T-22. Source: Ref 1 . T °F + 460 = T °R To use Fig. 2 , the tube metal temperature and stress must be estimated. Service or operational time—113,000 h in this case—can be obtained from plant records. If chemical cleaning had been performed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... tube was not available for chemical analysis, the composition of samples was determined after removing all the corrosion-affected inner layer by sandblasting and chemical cleaning. The composition was 64.1% Cu and 35.9% Zn (by difference); lead, iron, arsenic, antimony, and phosphorus were all less...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of a steam line to feed concentrated caustic during chemical cleaning, the preventive measure may be no more complicated than exclusion of the corrodent from that region of the system. In many instances, however, reduction of the level of residual stress is the most effective means of minimizing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., composition of fuel, amount of excess combustion air, type and amount of water-conditioning chemicals added, type and amount of contaminants in condensate and make-up feedwater, frequency and methods of cleaning fire-side and water-side surfaces of steam generators, materials specified as to alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001368
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The subsurface flaw shown in the middle of Fig. 3 (shaped like a half circle) was cut out for optical and electron microscope examinations. The flaw is shown in Fig. 4 after chemical cleaning to remove oil and rust. Ridges mark the transition between the subsurface flaw (bottom portion) and the fatigue crack...