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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the specified procedure for chemical cleaning of the tanks in preparation for potable water storage. The sodium hypochlorite sterilizing solution used was three times the prescribed strength, and the process exposed the bottom of the tanks to hypochlorite solution that had collected near the outlet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electrons and ions to the sample surface to help neutralize any excess charge. Application areas for TOF-SIMS include organic and inorganic contaminant identification, cleaning studies, surface segregation and modifications, corrosion, discolorations, drug distribution, diffusion studies, and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides information on the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). It describes the basic theory behind each of these techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wet metallurgical (abrasive) cutoff saw. Specimens should be stored in clean containers. This seems an obvious caveat, but even new containers can contain residual chemical contaminant that could be a confusing factor in the failure analysis. For example, mold release agents in new plastic bags...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... this mode of cracking. It was recommended that weld seams be furnace heat treated at a temperature of 600 to 640 deg C (1110 to 1180 deg F) for a minimum of 1 h per inch of section thickness. Chemical processing equipment Heat-affected zone Pipe, corrosion Repair welding Welded joints, corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... on evaluations of the blender to determine if material or mechanical failures were the cause of the accident. The results indicate that the mixing vessel was metallurgically sound and did not contribute to the initiation of the failure. However, the vessel was not designed for mixing chemicals that must...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the conclusion that that the deposits formed at locations that experienced steam blanketing or dryout at the higher levels of the steam generators. Recommendations included steam generator water-chemistry controls, chemical cleaning, and reduction of the primary reactor coolant system temperature. Electric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... corrosion through galvanic effects and can promote hydrogen damage. Ultrasonic testing was recommended to locate tubes with severe gouging and corrosion, which are suspect locations for hydrogen damage. The source of the copper should be identified and future chemical cleaning of the boiler should address...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Acidic conditions may have formed during a low-pH excursion that reportedly occurred several years prior. To prevent future failures, severely damaged tubing must be replaced. Internal deposit buildup must be removed by chemical cleaning to prevent further pitting. Water quality needs continued...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two new chrome-plated CDA 377 brass valves intended for inert gas service failed on initial installation. After a pickling operation to clean the metal, the outer surfaces of the valves had been flashed with copper and then plated with nickel and chromium for aesthetic purposes. One...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and careful inspection following alkaline-etch cleaning, to be scheduled before release of the floor panels for painting. Aircraft components Chemical milling Floors Fuel tanks 7178-T6 UNS A97178 Fatigue fracture The floors of the fuel tanks in two aircraft failed almost identically after 1076...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... cleaning but before chemical cleaning. A large amount of carbon steel rust and scale reportedly had been removed from the tube supports and shell by the high-pressure water cleaning. Figure 1 shows staining on the tubes along with heavy surface discoloration, which was blue in color. Most of this blue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Qualitative chemical analysis of the spool piece material was performed using SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results indicated that the alloy composition was consistent with low-carbon steel. SEM/EDS analysis of the fracture surfaces was performed prior to cleaning. Only iron oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0090965
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, unetched 30x images, and 2% nital etched 30x images) was difficult because the fracture surface of the frame section was obliterated by postfracture corrosion. Repeated attempts at cleaning using progressively stronger chemicals revealed that no telltale...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection was performed on a leaking absorber bundle in an absorption air-conditioning unit. The inspection revealed crack-like indications in approximately 50% of the tubes. The tube material was phosphorus-deoxidized copper. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the exteriors of the parts were clean and smooth, and there was evidence of a case. Examination of the flat surfaces of the parts revealed surface cracking where actual failure had not occurred. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a low-alloy carburizing steel. The microstructure was compatible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... (790 deg F). Metallographic sections, energy-dispersive x-ray spectra, chemical analyses, tensile tests, and Auger microscope analyses showed the failed bellows met the specifications for the material. However, investigation also showed entire oxide thickness was contaminated with relatively large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A steam-condensate line (type 316 stainless steel tubing) began leaking after five to six years in service. The line carried steam condensate at 120 deg C (250 deg F) with a two hour heat-up/cool-down cycle. No chemical treatment had been given to either the condensate or the boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... transgranular fracture failure mechanism. Water containing H7S was subsequently identified as the aggressive environment that precipitated the fractures in the presence of high tensile stress. This environment was generated by the chemical breakdown of the engine oil additive and moisture ingress...