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ceramic-matrix composites

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is of the type S 1 + L 1 → L 2 + S 2 with the formation of S 2 causing the interface composition to change. For porous solids such as refractories with open porosity and with matrix materials being fine and highly reactive, both dissolution and penetration occur; hence, most slagging situations involve...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., aspect ratio, distribution, orientation, combination with fillers, and the quality of bonding with the matrix), and operating conditions. Fibers are far more wear resistant than the matrix and hence control the wear of composite. Continuous fiber-reinforced composites with a thermoset-polymer matrix...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... matrix effect when analyzing smaller size inclusions in the “cups” of fracture surface. On the fracture surfaces of sample B, chromium, manganese, and sulfur were found to be present in almost all the inclusions. In both the rings, the composition of the inclusions on the fracture and the polished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between them and cross-linking chains High-strength and temperature-resistant materials E Rigid-chain domains in a flexible-chain matrix Styrene-butadiene-styrene, triblock polymer Thermoplastic elastomer (a) See Fig. 23 . (b) PE, polyethylene; PP, polypropylene; PVC, polyvinyl chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-chain matrix Styrene-butadiene-styrene, triblock polymerThermoplastic elastomer (a) See Fig. 23 . PE, polyethylene; PP, polypropylene; PVC, polyvinyl chloride; PA, polyamide; PI, polyimide; PET, polyethylene terephthalate. Source: Ref 6 Characterization of polymers in failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... For nickel-base alloys, Grabke et al. ( Ref 14 – 17 ) proposed six mechanisms: Carbon transfer from the gas phase and dissolution of carbon into the metal phase at oxide defect sites Formation of a supersaturated solution of carbon in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion weakens the role of reinforcements in composites and multiphase alloys. When composite materials and multiphase alloys are worn in corrosive environments, preferential corrosion of the matrix surrounding the reinforcement particles or hard second phases in the solid material microstructure weakens...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... region system develops when a brittle or nondeforming matrix is subjected to repetitive impact ( Ref 8 ). A white layer still forms, but the base material tends to remain undeformed (see Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Subsurface regions for (a) ductile and (b) brittle or non-deforming materials. Source: Ref 9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 1420 ksi) structure coexists in a relatively soft ferrite or pearlite (HV of approximately 1.0 to 2.9 GPa, or 145 to 420 ksi) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ksi) structure coexists in a relatively soft ferrite or pearlite (HV of approximately 1.0 to 2.9 GPa, or 145 to 420 ksi) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the nickel-iron matrix Deposition of graphite on the alloy surface in different orientations Growth of graphite into the metal phase by carbon atoms from the solid solution, attaching to graphite planes growing vertical to the metal surface Destruction of the metal phase by the inward-growing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... iron grades are eutectic, or near eutectic alloys, where graphite and the metallic matrix grow cooperatively on solidification. Gray Iron Composition and Microstructure Carbon Equivalent and Carbon Saturation Carbon equivalent (CE) is a simplified method of evaluating the effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... For instance, in the case of carbon steel, iron produces a rich and intense spectrum that can interfere with the analytes of interest. Careful matching of calibration standards to the elemental matrix of the specimen and the acid solvent is critical in order to produce valid data. Proper analytical line...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 12 ). A different subsurface region system develops when a brittle or nondeforming matrix is subjected to repetitive impact ( Ref 12 ). A white layer still forms, but the base material tends to remain undeformed ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 3 Subsurface regions for (a) ductile and (b) brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rail. The microstructures consist of predominantly types A and B graphite, flake size 4 to 6, in a matrix of medium-to-fine lamellar pearlite. The specimen taken near the No. 3 intake port has a higher-than-usual amount of free ferrite, approximately 5 to 10%. Conclusion The cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the composite surface roughness of the sliding surfaces ( Ref 43 ). The other factors contributing to scuffing failure include wear or fatigue debris in the lubricant, wearout of the protective tribological film, lubricant degradation, and so on ( Ref 44 , 45 ). The typical appearance of scuffed gear teeth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rupture due to MVC is the most prevalent fracture mechanism of ductile overload failures. During deformation, cavities (or microvoids) nucleate at small particles (such as inclusions and second-phase particles) when the matrix material separates from the particle by interfacial decohesion and when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ) inner surface of the specimen showing grain boundary oxidation, decarburization and grain coarsening, ( d ) matrix structure shows formation of voids at the grain boundaries, and ( e ) microstructure away from the bulged zone shows banded ferrite–pearlite matrix Fig. 4 SEM micrograph showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and second-phase particles) when the matrix material separates from the particle by interfacial decohesion or when the inclusion or second-phase fractures. The level of extensional growth of the microvoids is dependent on the level of plastic strain the material can undergo prior to fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-angle bands; HABs, high-angle bands. Source: Ref 33 Fig. 12 Micrograph showing a butterfly on a plane perpendicular to the rolling direction within a martensite/austenite matrix. Etched in nital. Original magnification: 750×. Source: Ref 63 Bearing Materials The vast majority...