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ceramic shells

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... showing normal microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement. 100× The vessel contained ceramic balls in the lower head and a catalyst in the shell section. Temperature of the incoming gas was 690 °C (1275 °F); the outgoing gas, 620 °C (1150 °F). Design temperature of the vessel, which was insulated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A nozzle in a wastewater vaporizer began leaking after approximately three years of service with acetic and formic acid wastewaters at 105 deg C (225 deg F) and 414 kPa (60 psig). The shell of the vessel was weld fabricated from 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) E-Brite stainless steel plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... adapter and subsequent injury to a member of the security personnel (Knoxville, TN. News-Sentinel, August 19, 1983). Metals and Ceramics Division personnel were asked to assist in investigating this explosion by applying microscopy and other metallurgical procedures to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for a four-year period beginning in 1981. Faulty design, fabrication, and inspection contribute to significant numbers of failures, particularly for shell components. Damage during shipment and storage must be considered because air and its contaminants may be corrosive. Field fabrication and erection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... vessel material. These data indicate the prevalent causes and types of failures and are summarized in Table 1 for a 4-year period beginning in 1981. Faulty design, fabrication, and inspection contribute to significant numbers of failures, particularly for shell components. Damage during shipment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... boundaries ( Fig. 3d ), suggesting creep of the blow pipe shell at the concerned region. When specimen ABZ was observed with the optical microscope, no such features like decarburization, grain coarsening and voids were observed. Microstructure of ABZ specimen showed banded ferrite-pearlite matrix ( Fig. 3e...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concludes with a review of the evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis. Auger electron spectroscopy ceramic materials corrosion electron probe microanalysis energy dispersive spectroscopy failure analysis macroscopic examination metallographic specimen preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as Stellite, and special nickel-base alloys such as Ni-Hard. These materials are useful not only for the flow-path surfaces but also as sleeves in sealing areas, particularly if packing is used. It is good practice to use hard metal or ceramic expellers near seal entrances to keep particles out of the sealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... In shell-mold castings of gray iron, the high thermal conductivity of the mold produces an initial chill of the iron surface. Subsequent annealing of the surface by the heat of the casting results in a skin that is almost 100% ferrite; such a skin has poor wear properties and should be removed by machining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and seal the stand opening. Typical stand openings range in size from 2 to 10 mm (0.08 to 0.40 in.). Tray inserts or ceramic inserts are available for most instruments to provide a range of openings. Sample stands can also be interchangeable to provide a range of openings. Equipment, such as wire holders...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). However, wear rather than fatigue can be a problem in bearing housings. Thin-shell bearings are used universally in diesel engines, and such bearings involve an interference fit between the bearing and the housing. If the contact pressure is not high enough, movement can occur, giving rise to the fretting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sample features as small as 25 nm. Auger electron spectroscopy is performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, using an electron beam typically in the 3 to 25 keV range. The AES process begins with electron bombardment of the sample material causing an atom to eject an inner-shell electron, thus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as small as 10 to 20 nm. Auger electron spectroscopy is performed under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions using an electron beam typically in the 3 to 25 keV range. The Auger process begins with electron bombardment of the sample material, causing an atom to eject an inner-shell electron and thus forming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., particularly if packing is used. It is good practice to use hard metal or ceramic expellers near seal entrances to keep particles out of the sealing clearance. If thorough flushing of packing presents a design problem, abrasion-resistant SiC ceramic mechanical seals together with an expeller or minimal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from alternating stresses in the shaft surface, the problem is more fatigue than wear. However, wear rather than fatigue can be a problem in bearing housings. Thin-shell bearings are used universally in diesel engines, and such bearings involve an interference fit between the bearing and the housing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Temperature Corrosion-Related Failures .” Additional discussion can be found in the articles “ Effect of Environment on the Performance of Plastics ” and “ Corrosion Failures of Industrial Refractories and Technical Ceramics ” in Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11 of the ASM Handbook , 2002...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... (b) Secondary electron image. Bright areas are lead contamination. Characteristic X-rays Characteristic x-rays are emitted due to collisions between incoming electrons and bound inner-shell electrons from the atoms that comprise the sample. If the incident electron has enough energy...