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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as compared to traditional ceramics). For the present purpose, technical ceramics are defined as fine-grain (as opposed to coarse) ceramics made of high-purity powders, oxides, and/or non oxides (same as for refractories), with very little batch-to-batch variability and as little as possible liquid-solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Manufacturing Processes Selective Laser Sintering Hand Lay-Up Process Digital Light Processing Metal/Ceramic Powder Injection Molding Liquid Silicone Rubber Injection Molding Blow Molding Gas/Water-Assisted Injection Molding Microcellular Injection Molding Microinjection Molding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... materials. Fig. 29 Examples of strength-limiting defects in ceramics. (a) Silicon inclusion in reaction-bonded silicon nitride. (b) Powder agglomerate in sintered silicon carbide. (c) Machining damage in hot pressed silicon nitride. SEM; picture widths (a) ∼150 μm. (b) ∼300 μm, (c) ∼150 μm. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and spalling ( Ref 4 , 5 ) in conventional bearing steels ( Fig. 1 ) to delamination in hybrid ceramics ( Ref 6 ) and overlay coatings ( Ref 7 ), as discussed later. Contact geometry of the bodies subjected to RCF can be conforming (e.g., contact between the outer race and roller in a rolling-element roller...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the generic features of impact wear on metals, ceramics, and polymers. It describes normal impact wear and compound impact wear, as well as the features of impact wear testing apparatus such as ballistic impact wear apparatus and pivotal hammer impact wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. This article describes some generic features and modes of impact wear of metals, ceramics, and polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface hardness and compressive residual stresses. Hybrid Bearings Steel rolling elements may be replaced with ceramic (silicon nitride or zirconium oxide) rolling elements to form a combination called a hybrid bearing ( Ref 119 – 127 ). Under ideal conditions, hybrid bearings show lower RCF life...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... adapter and subsequent injury to a member of the security personnel (Knoxville, TN. News-Sentinel, August 19, 1983). Metals and Ceramics Division personnel were asked to assist in investigating this explosion by applying microscopy and other metallurgical procedures to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as Stellite, and special nickel-base alloys such as Ni-Hard. These materials are useful not only for the flow-path surfaces but also as sleeves in sealing areas, particularly if packing is used. It is good practice to use hard metal or ceramic expellers near seal entrances to keep particles out of the sealing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... coatings, thermal barrier coatings, and ceramic coatings. aluminide coatings carburization ceramic coatings chloridation corrosion fatigue high temperature corrosion hot corrosion hydrogen interaction metal dusting molten metals molten salts overlay coatings oxidation protective coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that hard and brittle constituents of the microstructure are not fractured or microspalled by the abrasive forces. Under these circumstances, ferrous alloys containing hard carbides have good to excellent wear resistance. Ceramics and synthetic stone (e.g., fused silicates) are also used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that hard and brittle constituents of the microstructure are not fractured or microspalled by the abrasive forces. Under these circumstances, ferrous alloys containing hard carbides have good to excellent wear resistance. Ceramics and synthetic stone (e.g., fused silicates) are also used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to carburization than the chromia scale-forming alloys ( Ref 19 ). Nitridation Nitridation of alloys in ammonia environments is well known in ammonia and heat treating industries ( Ref 20 ). Nitridation attack by N 2 also is known in the powder metallurgy industry. The kinetics of nitridation in N 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the reaction is usually oxidation. Fretting wear occurs in tribosystems such as metal versus plastic, where oxidation of nascent surfaces does not usually occur. Abrasive wear by hard particles occurs when one body, in general, a ceramic-like substance, is much harder than the counterface, such as a ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and sulfur treatments for sulfide, alumina, and silicate inclusions ( Ref 19 ). Hard inclusions in the workpiece material can abrade the cutting tool material ( Ref 20 ). Inclusions, porosity, and oxide films in powder metallurgy steels can reduce their machinability, but closing the pores, increased...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., Department of Orthopaedics, Northwestern University, for providing the retrieved implants for this analysis. Acknowledgments Ceramic coatings Sintering (powder metallurgy) Surgical implants Ti-6Al-4V ELI UNS R56407 Fatigue fracture Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Volume 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., particularly if packing is used. It is good practice to use hard metal or ceramic expellers near seal entrances to keep particles out of the sealing clearance. If thorough flushing of packing presents a design problem, abrasion-resistant SiC ceramic mechanical seals together with an expeller or minimal...