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ceramic particles

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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Good edge retention obtained in a cast epoxy mount containing soft ceramic shot filler (round particles in the epoxy at the top.) The specimen is annealed H13 hot work die steel etched with picral. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Good edge retention obtained in a cast epoxy mount containing soft ceramic shot filler. (Note the round particles in the epoxy at the top.) The specimen is annealed H13 hot work die steel, and it was etched with picral. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., that became the fracture origin. Optical microscope; transmitted light; picture width ∼300 μm Similar damage is produced when sharp particles impact glass or ceramic surfaces, as illustrated by the example in Fig. 20 . The lateral cracks reached the surface, causing material to spall off. Complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as Stellite, and special nickel-base alloys such as Ni-Hard. These materials are useful not only for the flow-path surfaces but also as sleeves in sealing areas, particularly if packing is used. It is good practice to use hard metal or ceramic expellers near seal entrances to keep particles out of the sealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. This article describes some generic features and modes of impact wear of metals, ceramics, and polymers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes, the abrasive particle shape and size, the applied stress, and the hardness of the wear surface. For brittle materials (e.g., ceramics), a transition from a purely cutting mechanism to one that also involves fragmentation occurs when the nature of contact changes from elastic-plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be expressed through the following parameters ( Ref 7 , 9 ): the probability of wear debris formation, the proportion of plowing and cutting processes, the abrasive particle shape and size, the applied stress, and the hardness of the wear surface. For brittle materials (e.g., ceramics), a transition from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between head...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concludes with a review of the evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis. Auger electron spectroscopy ceramic materials corrosion electron probe microanalysis energy dispersive spectroscopy failure analysis macroscopic examination metallographic specimen preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the reaction is usually oxidation. Fretting wear occurs in tribosystems such as metal versus plastic, where oxidation of nascent surfaces does not usually occur. Abrasive wear by hard particles occurs when one body, in general, a ceramic-like substance, is much harder than the counterface, such as a ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., particularly if packing is used. It is good practice to use hard metal or ceramic expellers near seal entrances to keep particles out of the sealing clearance. If thorough flushing of packing presents a design problem, abrasion-resistant SiC ceramic mechanical seals together with an expeller or minimal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article discusses the generic features of impact wear on metals, ceramics, and polymers. It describes normal impact wear and compound impact wear, as well as the features of impact wear testing apparatus such as ballistic impact wear apparatus and pivotal hammer impact wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was seen relating the wear particle size with the coefficient of friction. Researchers modeled near-surface cracks in zirconia ceramics that are subjected to contact loading ( Ref 28 ). It is concluded that frictional contact may have a significant influence, especially on the sliding mode (mode II...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... not be acceptable to a particular process, and periodic descaling operations can lead to degradation of refractories. Although no deposition may occur, abrasion can take place when refractory or ceramic linings are bombarded by dusts. The extent of abrasive wear depends on the impinging particle size, shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface or by abrasive particles (rolling or grooving) in corrosive environments. For example, during wet milling, a metal surface is abraded by abrasives involving simultaneous electrochemical reactions in an aqueous solution. Other examples of abrasion-corrosion include mining shearers working in wet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... = 110 cS). Source: Ref 35 Ceramics Ceramics are used as components of hydraulic machinery and valves because of their superior corrosion, abrasion, and solid-particle erosion resistance. However, damage can occur by cavitation erosion. Some ceramics are more sensitive to cavitation than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the particle trajectory and the surface plane. Brittle erosion is more commonly observed on hardened surfaces or brittle materials, such as ceramics. Most aggressive at higher angles, impacting particles work harden, fatigue, and then microcrack the surface layers. Repeated impacts lead to fragmentation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to localized wear, but careful monitoring is necessary to prevent failure of the worn parts because of corrosion ( Ref 2 ). Turbulence and eddies are promoted either where fittings or valves project into the mainstream flow or where the diameter of a pipe changes. The momentum of the particles is sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and spalling ( Ref 4 , 5 ) in conventional bearing steels ( Fig. 1 ) to delamination in hybrid ceramics ( Ref 6 ) and overlay coatings ( Ref 7 ), as discussed later. Contact geometry of the bodies subjected to RCF can be conforming (e.g., contact between the outer race and roller in a rolling-element roller...