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cemented carbides

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 TEM replica of a fracture surface of WC-3Co cemented carbide exhibiting Wallner lines (arrowed) 8 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... with mixed acids, metallographic examination, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusions that the premature failure of the tube by perforation at the hearth level resulted from (1) corrosion caused by sulfur contamination from the refractory cement in contact with the tube and (2) severe local...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... cracking (IGSCC) Nuclear power plants Nuclear reactor coolant piping Nuclear Pump seal wear rings Pump shaft cracking Stress corrosion cracking 304 UNS S30400 Cemented carbide Stress-corrosion cracking Dealloying/selective leaching 1. Introduction Approximately 113 nuclear electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of mixed behavior was created based on results (rounded silica sand of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, or 0.004 to 0.01 in., diameter; 61 m/s, or 200 ft/s, velocity) obtained for WC-15wt%Co cemented carbide consisting of brittle tungsten carbide grains and ductile cobalt matrix ( Ref 49 ). Erosion of a given material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cloths. For hard materials, such as through-hardened steels, ceramics, and cemented carbides, two rough-polishing steps may be sufficient. The initial rough-polishing step may be followed by polishing with 1 μm diamond on a napless, low-nap, or medium-nap cloth. A compatible lubricant should be used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... prostheses are anchored by using a bone cement in a bed that has been mechanically prepared in the remaining bone. Recently, various designs have been developed for the cementless anchoring of prostheses by a tight fit. Certain prosthesis systems have porous surface coatings on their shafts to increase...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., ceria, zirconia, and/or niobia improve the scale adhesion and scale resilience to cyclic oxidation ( Ref 5 ). Carburization Carburization is the formation of carbide corrosion products on exposure to temperatures above approximately 760 °C (1400 °F) in gases containing methane, carbon monoxide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polishing is conducted with 9, 6, or 3 μm diamond abrasives charged onto napless or low-nap cloths. For hard materials, such as through-hardened steels, ceramics, and cemented carbides, two rough-polishing steps may be required. The initial rough-polishing step may be followed by polishing with 1 μm diamond...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of which are cemented to provide a gap for generating the recording field or collecting the media flux for writing and reading data, respectively. During the last decade the storage density of a magnetic disk-drive has doubled every 2.5 years on the average. Advances in materials, lubrication...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), the tube was renormalized. No chemical cleaning was performed, and the boiler operated for 16 years. After this service history, the microstructure was mildly spheroidized carbides, with pearlite colonies still well defined. Inside-diameter scale thickness indicated an average metal temperature of nearly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and outside-diameter and/or inside-diameter intergranular cracking or oxide penetration of the grain boundaries. The carbide phase of ferritic steels is fully spheroidized. Fig. 7 Microstructure showing (a) extensive transverse cracking adjacent to the main fracture (original magnification: ~4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Trans. , Vol 29 ( No. 4 ), 1985 , p 473 – 480 36. Okada T. and Hattori S. , Cavitation-Erosion of Aluminium Oxide and Silicon Carbide , JSME Int. J. , Vol 33 ( No. 3 ), 1990 , p 382 – 387 37. Okada T. , Cavitation Erosion of Ceramics , Jpn. J. Tribol. , Vol 41...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... cracking (SCC) ( Fig. 15 ), 10 or progression markings caused by variations in corrosion product due to changing environmental conditions during SCC. Fig. 13 TEM replica of a fracture surface of WC-3Co cemented carbide exhibiting Wallner lines (arrowed) 8 Fig. 14 TEM replica...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... sulfur content to 1 ppm or less and small additions of lanthanum, yttrium, tantalum, cerium, zirconium, and/or niobium improve scale adhesion and scale resilience to cyclic oxidation ( Ref 8 ). Carburization Carburization is the formation of carbide corrosion products on exposure to temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of energy consumed annually by U.S. industry for crushing and grinding purposes, whereas contributions from minerals account for 50%; cement, 25%; coal, 13%; and agricultural products, 12% ( Ref 5 ). The development of more efficient mining, transportation, and processing systems has allowed exploitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and the morphology of cracks that develop, as illustrated by the intergranular SCC that occurs in sensitized austenitic stainless steel alloys and some higher-strength aluminum alloys. Sensitization occurs in some austenitic stainless steels when chromium carbides form at the austenite grain boundaries, which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be reduced on the surface of a more active metal—for example, copper on aluminum or steel, silver on copper. This process is also known as cementation, especially with regard to aluminum alloys. The resulting metallic deposit provides cathodic sites for further galvanic corrosion of the more active metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rolled, extruded, or forged products are stressed in the short-transverse direction. In wrought austenitic stainless steels, crack paths are usually transgranular if proper heat treatment has been employed. However, if thermal processing has produced sensitization because of carbide precipitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as noble metals in a galvanic couple. Metal Ion Deposition Ions of a more noble metal may be reduced on the surface of a more active metal, for example, copper on aluminum or steel, or silver on copper. This process is also known as cementation, especially with regard to aluminum alloys...