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caustic corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... caustic attack that led to ruptures in areas of high stress. The escaping steam eroded the outer surface of the tube causing heavy loss of metal around the rupture points. boiler tubes stress rupture caustic corrosion carbon steel oxide scale deposits punch marks inductively coupled plasma...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Original carbon steel and subsequent replacement austenitic stainless steel superheater tube U-bend failures occurred in a waste heat boiler. The carbon steel tubes had experienced metal wastage in the form of caustic corrosion gouging, while the stainless steel tubes failed by caustic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A type 430Ti stainless steel flue gas expansion joint cracked because of caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis of the fracture surface deposits revealed the presence of sodium and potassium—caustics in hydroxide form. Primary fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of the solution of caustic soda and possibly the temperature also were in the range known to produce stress-corrosion cracking of mild steels in the presence of stresses of sufficient magnitude. In this instance the location of the cracking suggested that residual stresses from welding, which approach yield point...
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 50 Caustic stress-corrosion cracking in carbon steel. Original magnification: 100× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 6 Photographs of boiler plates exhibiting caustic stress-corrosion cracking (arrows). Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 32 Micrographs of caustic stress-corrosion cracking that developed in austenitic stainless steel piping. The micrographs in (b) correspond to the box in (a). Original magnification: 100× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... path, which is characteristic for caustic corrosion cracks. It was recommended that the internal stresses be removed through annealing or alternatively lye-resistant steel should be used. Boilers Riveted joints Steam Fe-0.05C-0.38Mn Stress-corrosion cracking Steels with nitrogen, when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Intergranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking During the microscopical examination of a number of cases of caustic cracking, a certain feature has been recognised that appeared to be associated only with caustic cracking, this being a preferential attack on the carbide envelopes and lamellae...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Boiler tubes Caustic cracking Residual stress Welded joints 304H UNS S30409 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Stainless steel superheater tubes fractured in stressed areas within a few hours after caustic regenerant leaked into the boiler feedwater system. Applications In typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Caustic cracking is the term used to describe one of the forms in which stress-corrosion cracking manifests itself in carbon steels. In the present study, persistent leakage occurred after ten weeks of service from tube expansions in the steam and mud drum of a two-drum D type boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... approach to failure analysis to confirm that the cracking was caused by a caustic stress-corrosion cracking mechanism is presented. Caustic cracking Chemical processing equipment Compressor blades Sodium hydroxide, environment 4320 UNS G43200 Stress-corrosion cracking Background Severe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... without exhibiting the same rapid corrosion. A second effect of boiling is concentration of the boiler-water chemicals. For reasons not well understood, the magnetite produced in highly caustic solutions tends to be nonprotective. Whether this involves the dissolution of the iron as the soluble FeOOH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that the combination of the residual plus operating stresses and the amount of KOH present would have caused stress corrosion as a result of caustic embrittlement. It was recommended that the tray support should be installed higher on the vessel wall to prevent coincidence of the lower tray-support weld...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 3 Plot demonstrating the susceptibility of some austenitic stainless steels to caustic stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) with respect to temperature and caustic concentration. Stress-corrosion cracking has not been observed in these austenitic stainless steels exposed to conditions More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Caustic, not chloride, stress corrosion was the culprit. Had material substitutions been made on the original premise of countering chloride stress corrosion, most of the loop's highly stressed components would have eventually failed. Bearings Bellows Caustic stress corrosion cracking 304 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001354
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of sodium on crack surfaces, which is indicative of NaOH-induced stress-corrosion cracking. Failure was attributed to superheater problems that resulted in caustic carryover from the boiler. Two options for disk repair, installing a shrink-fit disk or applying weld buildup, were recommended. Weld repair...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is higher than in subcritical units. Because of this, the furnace tubes act more as superheaters than as water-walls. This necessitates the use of a higher grade of materials, such as the high-alloy steels, in the furnace. In turn, materials having higher creep strength and greater oxidation and corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... was encountered in copper alloys, caustic embrittlement was experienced in boilers. (Caustic embrittlement is also known as caustic cracking. Both of these terms are considered archaic; currently, the term caustic stress-corrosion cracking is used to describe the same phenomenon.) Cracking was observed around...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... developed was of the form known as caustic cracking. It was recommended that water for de-superheater use should be taken after the deaerator and prior to the addition of salts which may deposit or concentrate in the desuperheater. Bellows Corrosion environments Leakage Sodium hydroxide Sodium...