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cathodic arc sources

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as soil movement, subsidence, or severe thermal fluctuations. Except for such unusual sources, the longitudinal stress in a pipeline is about 30% of the hoop stress or about 22% of the specified minimum yield stress (SMYS) for a line operating at 72% SMYS. Typical manual metal arc weld defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Examination Hardness Testing Mechanical Testing Chemical Analysis The results of the analysis indicate that the cause of the perforation was a high-voltage arc-discharging energy from the pipe wall to ground and attributable to energy sources such as lightening strikes or ground faults from high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... ( 6 ), 19 – 23 ( 1997 ). 5. McGill G.E , Cramer S.D. , Bullard S.J. , Covino B.S. Jr. , and Holcomb G.R. , “Field Application of an Arc-Sprayed Titanium Anode for Cathodic Protection of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete,” 124 pp, Interim Report 5265, Oregon Department...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... manufacturing operations that provide ready sources for the atomic form of hydrogen. The most common causes are toward the top of the list: When a metal or a metal alloy corrodes in a low-pH solution, the cathodic partial reaction is reduction of the hydrogen ion. Although most of the reduced hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hydrogen, tensile stress, and low-ductility microstructure, such as martensite. Hydrogen can be transferred to the molten weld pool from the arc atmosphere. Sources of hydrogen include the shielding gas, flux, or surface contamination. As the weld metal cools, it becomes supersaturated with hydrogen, which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... even to generalized uniform chemical attack—described in the section “Uniform Corrosion” —in which the anodes and cathodes of the cells are numerous, small, and close together. The analysis of corrosion failures and the development of suitable corrective measures require not only a basic understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., battery, or solar cell. Conversely, stray currents can be a source of increased galvanic degradation. Altering the Electrolyte The use of corrosion inhibitors is effective in some cases. Elimination of cathodic depolarizers (deaeration of water by thermomechanical means plus oxygen scavengers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... explains the SCC, which occurs due to welding, metalworking process, and stress concentration, including options for investigation and corrective measures. It describes the sources of stresses in service and the effect of composition and metal structure on the susceptibility of SCC. The article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that these springs had been barrel electroplated after fabrication. It is well known that barrel loads that are too small or that tangle can result in intermittent contact with the dangler (suspended cathode contact) as the barrel rotates. This allows high local currents when the last contact is broken, resulting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...., Gauss, Weibull, logit, arc sin p ) and the failure probability. Table 2 shows u -values for different failure probabilities for the most often applied Gauss log distribution. Safety span for different failure probabilities (Gauss log distribution) Table 2 Safety span for different...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the liquid penetrant may corrode the metal. Surface films may prevent detection of discontinuities. Penetrant may be a source of contamination that masks results in subsequent chemical analysis of fracture surfaces. The process is generally not suited to inspection of low-density powder-metallurgy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 1 Fretting damage incurred in a bearing shell component because of insufficient contact pressure between the shell and housing of a bearing. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 2 Locations (indicated by F) prone to fretting in an aluminum-steel riveted joint Fig. 3 Fatigue crack...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... special material requirements (vessel material other than carbon steel, internal cladding, etc.) Maximum internal operating pressure Vessel protection requirements (painted surfaces, stainless steel overlays at seals, cathodic protection, etc.) Maximum external operating pressure (vacuum, etc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of fretting cycles by shot peening. Adapted from Ref 93 . (b) Evolution of fretting fatigue endurance (cracking failure) as a function of fatigue stress for constant partial slip fretting loading ( P = Cst, Q * = Cst). Comparison between surface treatments (shot peening, or SP) and coatings. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... amount of plasticity globally Ductile Overload Failures Ductile overload failures are simply those that exhibit significant visible macroscopic plastic deformation. Applied stress and energy from an external source are required to propagate the fracture, rather than residual stresses alone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., namely, design deficiencies, material defects, manufacturing/installation defects, and service life anomalies, with examples. The article describes several common charting methods that may be useful in performing an RCA. It also discusses other failure analysis tools, including review of all sources...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... significant visible macroscopic plastic deformation. Applied stress and energy from an external source is required to propagate the fracture, rather than residual stresses alone. Ductile cracks blunt and stop when the stresses are dynamically reduced and insufficient energy to create further distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a resulfurized grade of carbon steel (SAE type 1144, UNS G11440), as required by the manufacturer. This type of steel is marketed as having a rather unusual combination of high strength and high machinability. The source of the high strength is in the carbon content and the cold drawing process used to produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... psig), 600 °C (1110 °F) and above >42 Advanced ultrasupercritical 27.8–34.5 MPa (4000–5000 psig), 700–760 °C (1300–1400 °F) >45 Source: Ref 34 Nominal composition of alloys tested in molten chlorides at 650 and 700 °C (1200 and 1290 °F) under nitrogen Table 3 Nominal...