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catalyst preparation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... much, but strapping on some tubes clearly identified bulging in the hottest areas about 1.4 m (54 in.) above the burner terrace. This was used as the basis for radiographing all other tubes. The catalyst was removed from the tubes in preparation for radiography. Two IR-192 radiation sources having...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Background and Summary A catalyst basket used in a chemical process reactor distorted extensively during three years of service at 650 °C (1200 °F). The basket was fabricated from cold rolled Type 304 austenitic stainless steel profile wire. The cold worked wires recrystallized during service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A spherical carbon steel fixed-catalyst bed reactor, fabricated from French steel A42C-3S, approximately equivalent to ASTM A201 grade B, failed after 20 years of service while in a standby condition. The unit was found to contain primarily hydrogen at the time of failure. The vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of these units is a 1000 short ton/day ammonia plant designed by M.W.Kellogg and is situated in IJmuiden (NL). Synthesis gas for ammonia manufacture is made in a top-fired furnace by reforming a steam/methane gas mixture over a nickel catalyst. The pre-heated gas mixture enters spun cast catalyst tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... showing normal microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement. 100× The vessel contained ceramic balls in the lower head and a catalyst in the shell section. Temperature of the incoming gas was 690 °C (1275 °F); the outgoing gas, 620 °C (1150 °F). Design temperature of the vessel, which was insulated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... were cut and marked, as shown in Fig. 2 . Smaller metallographic samples and mechanical testing specimens were prepared from the failed weldment and the tube pieces. Recorded experience from other reformer furnaces in similar industrial units indicates that tubing failure is invariably by a creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Practice for Evaluation of Technical Data ASTM E 1020—Standard Practice for Reporting Incidents ASTM E 860—Standard Practice for Examining and Preparing Items that Are or May Become Involved in Criminal or Civil Litigation Fitness-for-Service (FFS) Assessments Pressure-containing components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... sulfur and H 2 S is free from O 2 and H 2 O as far as possible. In spite of this, the intrusion of these species in the system can occur because of one or more of the following reasons. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of M. Madan in sample preparation, metallography, and hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... diameter of 168mm and a nominal thickness of 22mm. The inside of the tube was used to carry a Ni-Mo alumina based catalyst at a temperature of 900°C and an internal pressure of 1.9MPa in a steam and natural gas mixture atmosphere. Transverse cross sections for microscopical examination were prepared...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the fracture surfaces with a low-power stereomicroscope revealed that very little thinning of the metal had taken place, indicating low ductility and little corrosive attack. Metallographic specimens were prepared from regions adjacent to the fracture and at the outer surface of the bend. The steel near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the inner surface could be a result of unappropriate decoking cycles. Further observation shows that there was no other crack on tube surfaces. Generally, there was no evidence for either general or localized wall thinning in all specimens studied. Selected specimens were prepared from the four samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of materials being tested. Sample preparation with polymeric materials is a critical aspect to obtain reproducible results. Small nicks or scratches in the polymer sample may result in premature failure or nonrepresentative tensile data. At least five samples are tensile tested for isotropic materials. Samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... design, edge preparation, fit-up, cleanness of base metal and filler metal, shielding, and welding technique all affect weld quality and must be carefully controlled to prevent porosity, cracks, fissures, undercuts, incomplete fusion, and other weld imperfections. The sources of weld discontinuities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... antimicrobial compounds Type Details Application ZnO in polybutylene succinate films Composite films were prepared by blown-film extrusion at five ZnO levels, ranging from 2 to 10 wt%. Minimum loading of 6 wt% was needed to achieve antimicrobial effect. Zinc ions were released over 15 days...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are sectioned carefully, mounted in a resin compound, ground, and polished to facilitate metallographic examination. The prepared cross sections are called metallurgical mounts and are prepared using standard metallographic techniques. Mounts are examined in the unetched and etched conditions. In the unetched...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to a particular failure depend on the type and size of the sample, the depth of analysis, the type of information sought, the ease of performing the analysis, the allowable destruction of the sample in either preparation or analysis, and the cost/time required. The information required about the surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are the different types of samples that can be analyzed and the special sample-handling procedures that must be implemented when preparing to do failure analysis using these surface-sensitive techniques. Data obtained from different material defects are presented for each of the techniques. The examples presented...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a laboratory, the requirements for on-site testing may involve the use of portable laboratories with metallographic equipment for grinding, mechanical polishing, and etching. Small specimens can be cut from a part on the site for preparation, examination, and photography immediately or upon return to a fully...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... undergo weight loss through chemical degradation of the polymer, caused by decomposition of the low-molecular-weight constituents such as fillers and additives (catalysts, hardeners, pigments, or fire retardants), resulting in chemical leaching of species (ions) into the surrounding medium. Chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9