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catalyst

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Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Configuration and dimension of spherical fixed-catalyst bed reactor that failed after 20 years of service. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Reactor catalyst basket More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... filled with a nickel catalyst. The tubes were centrifugally cast from ASTM A297, grade HK-40 (Fe-25Cr-20Ni-0.40C), heat-resistant alloy. The tube was concluded after metallurgical inspection to have failed from creep rupture (i.e., stress rupture). A project for detecting midwall creep fissuring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A spherical carbon steel fixed-catalyst bed reactor, fabricated from French steel A42C-3S, approximately equivalent to ASTM A201 grade B, failed after 20 years of service while in a standby condition. The unit was found to contain primarily hydrogen at the time of failure. The vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... showed evidence of burning from a torch. This tank failure was the catalyst for the introduction of new rules concerning the inspection and assessment of older storage tanks. Inspection Storage tanks Storage tank steel Brittle fracture The authors were involved in investigating the failure...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
of a section removed from a failed tube that contained no catalyst showing fissures near the ruptured area. (c) Same section as (b) but containing a catalyst. Fissures are visible but less apparent. (d) Macrograph showing fissures in a tube that were detected by radiography. 6×. (e) Macrograph showing fine More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (areas 3 and 10), indicating that it was SiC from the catalyst carriers, or sodium and potassium (area 2), indicating that it was salt from the salt bath. Other regions contained mixtures of iron, silicon, potassium, and titanium, indicating that magnetite, SiC carrier material, salt from the salt bath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0006899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the metal surface. Good catalysts, such as iron, increase the rate of H 2 formation; poor catalysts do not. Catalyst poisons, such as sulfides, retard the formation of H 2 , increase the concentration of atomic hydrogen on the cathode surface, and therefore facilitate the entrance of hydrogen atoms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... N06601 Intergranular fracture Steam reforming of natural gas is considered the most economic process for industrial hydrogen production. By this process, a mixture of methane and steam forms hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide while flowing through a catalyst bed. Steam reforming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Background and Summary A catalyst basket used in a chemical process reactor distorted extensively during three years of service at 650 °C (1200 °F). The basket was fabricated from cold rolled Type 304 austenitic stainless steel profile wire. The cold worked wires recrystallized during service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of these units is a 1000 short ton/day ammonia plant designed by M.W.Kellogg and is situated in IJmuiden (NL). Synthesis gas for ammonia manufacture is made in a top-fired furnace by reforming a steam/methane gas mixture over a nickel catalyst. The pre-heated gas mixture enters spun cast catalyst tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... runs in the catalyst-filling tubes. Gas (2.07 to 2.41 MPa at 450 to 550 °C, or 300–350 psig at 842 to 1022 °F) flows from an inlet manifold system in the top of the furnace through inlet pigtails at the tops of the reformer tubes. At the bottom, tubes are welded to an assembly consisting of a reducer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... reformer furnace used in an ammonia plant. Furnace temperatures were reduced immediately, but it was necessary to continue firing of the furnace at about 540 to 595 °C (1000 to 1100 °F) for 16 h to reduce the catalyst. Subsequent shutdown inspection revealed that the bottom of one of seven outlet headers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... this mechanism was initiated, reaction rates probably accelerated when carbon diffused into the area of fine grain size. The higher density of grain boundaries enhanced the inward diffusion of carbon and exposed more metal surfaces. These surfaces acted as catalysts for the metal dusting reaction. A sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., hardeners, catalysts, or additives to achieve a homogeneous resin blend. It should be noted that mixing is an important aspect of the impregnation process, in that part A and part B are mixed before impregnation. In the case of prepregs, resins, hardeners, and catalysts are used which will initiate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) in a catalyst tube to form a mixture of CO 2 , CO, H 2 , and CH 4 gases. These gases are then cooled to 400 to 425 °C (750 to 800 °F) in the quench pot vessel by mixing the gases with a water spray over a series of pall rings. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the quench pot pressure vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... showing normal microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement. 100× The vessel contained ceramic balls in the lower head and a catalyst in the shell section. Temperature of the incoming gas was 690 °C (1275 °F); the outgoing gas, 620 °C (1150 °F). Design temperature of the vessel, which was insulated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Petrochemical plants normally use reformer furnace units for a full range of processes, such as ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen production. These are gas- or oil-burning furnaces that contain heat-resistant tubing in which high-temperature reactions occur in the presence of a catalyst. The tubing construction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... hydrogen via a high-temperature reaction between steam and hydrocarbon gases in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction occurs inside heat-resistant, spun-cast tubes. These are high-chromium and nickel alloy tubes that are welded to the headers and pigtails that connect the inlet of reagents and the exit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... took place to cause the explosion but that for some reason, either catalysts being present or critical mix of components, an explosion took place. An exact answer to this portion of the problem requires extensive further experimentation. The analysis of this failure points to some rules that should...