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cast metals

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (or defects, in the terminology used by the ICFTA classification scheme, Table 1 ): Metallic projections Cavities Discontinuities Defects Incomplete casting Incorrect dimension Inclusions or structural anomalies International classification of common casting defects Table 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of production. Castings examined were of an automobile name-plate holder with two flat sides of approximately 113 sq cm. All castings produced during a trial showed laking defects, the number and position varying from casting to casting. It was found that formation of metal waves and lakes depended primarily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... metal arc welding; neither preheating nor postheating was specified. The filler metal was E70S-6 continuous consumable wire with a copper coating to protect it from atmospheric oxidation while on the reel. Analysis of the two castings revealed that the carbon content was higher than specified, ranging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... It had been repair welded after breaking into two pieces longitudinally in a prior incident, using cast iron as weld metal. The repair weld bead on both surfaces missed the fracture over 15 to 20% of their lengths. The incomplete repair weld and brittleness of the weld metal and heat-affected zones led...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... portions of the gear face exhibited light discoloration, which was suggestive of weld repairs. The cracks were evident within the base metal, at the repair weld fusion lines, and within the weld metal. Figure 1(a) shows the opened crack features in an area where a weld and remaining casting imperfection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The fracture of the eye connector was concluded to have occurred by tensile overload because of shrinkage porosity. Sound metal was ensured by radiographic examination of subsequent castings. Connectors Crack propagation Fasteners Overloading Porosity Shrinkage ASTM A148 grade 150-125 Casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... and evidence of a heavy buildup of material at the abrupt change in diameter to the lower neck of the body. Figure 1(b) is a cross section through the part that shows weld metal, a piece of wrought plate that had been welded in during a repair, and the original casting. Chemistries of the three constituents...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0089617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... sticking to the bore surface. Recommendations included reducing the pouring temperatures of the molten metal and spraying a thicker insulating coating onto the mold surface. Centrifugal casting Foundry practice Molds Overheating 4130 UNS G41300 Casting-related failures The forged 4130...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... present at the site where fracturing occurred on the other risers. Cold shuts occur during the casting process as metal flows into the mold and fails to fuse at local sites. This lack of fusion can be caused by cold metal, cold molds, and/or metal flow patterns in the mold cavity. Often, one location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089696
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., 0.93% Mn, 0.023% P, 0.023% S, 0.53% Si, 0.044% Cu, 0.003% Sn, 0.50% Ni, 0.52% Cr, 0.20% Mo, 0.068% Al, and 0.003% V. Mechanical Properties Hardness Vickers hardness testing (500 g load) found the as-cast base metal to have readings of 215, 229, and 229 HV, for an average hardness of 224 HV...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the casting was generally found to be tempered martensite, with significant variation in microstructure from weld metal to the core. The mounted sample contained a considerable amount of shrinkage porosity. Figure 9 shows a macrograph of the crosshead about 10 mm (0.4 in.) under the fracture in Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... at the component manufacturing facility. A tour of the entire production process revealed that hardened slag products along the outside of the crucible were inadvertently being poured into the casting die along with the molten metal. It was concluded that this may have attributed to the inclusions noted in the two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... scans of the material, as well as the approximate alloy constituents of both the base metal and the weld metal. The scans show that the casting was welded with a weld material similar in composition to the casting material, in accordance with specifications. Fig. 8 EDS scan of polished specimen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to the part during casting. Figure 5 shows the presence of decarburization at a gate contact surface. This surface was covered by metal during casting and did not contact the investment shell. Consequently, decarburization must have occurred after casting. An additional section taken through a surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... through flange Smeared metal on the inner wall. Etched (CuSO 4 + HCl + H 2 O). 15 × The microstructure shows that the cast material is relatively pure and that all the inclusions are oxidic (essentially chromium oxide). The original microstructure outside the heat affected zone consists of ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (such as might exist in a tightly closed crack) and is caused by selective removal and/or redeposition of metal by gas phase reactions with the atmosphere ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Finally, the flakes were similar in size to the apparent as-cast grain structure and were much larger than the austenite grain size produced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Near-surface porosity in zinc die castings that were subsequently plated with copper, nickel, and bright chromium was causing blemishes in the plating. Identifying die casting turbulence and hot spots were keys to process modifications that subsequently allowed porosity to be greatly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of castings or pouring with curves, for instance, iron rods are used, from which pieces may melt off and fall into the liquid steel. But more probably the metallic inclusions originate in floated base places of carbon-deficient steel, such as are inserted into the mold in casting from the above...