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cast ingots

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat treated steel CK 45 according to DIN 17200, and crankshafts forged from these ingots showed internal separations during ultrasonic testing. To determine the cause of defect, an ingot slice and a crank arm were examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated, furnished...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Section of slice of a cast ingot, etch: Copper ammonium chloride solution according to Heyn. 1 × More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001112
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the distribution of the residual stresses, which, aided by low fracture toughness due to the poor quality of the beam, resulted in failure. It was recommended that segregation be avoided in cast ingots used for I-beam manufacture by implementing a better quality-control procedure. Segregations IS-226...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Laminations in rolled steel sheet resulting from insufficient cropping of the pipe from the top of a conventionally cast ingot. Courtesy of V. Demski, Teledyne Rodney Metals More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also are covered...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... operations are also classified as either primary metalworking (where mill forms such as bar, plate, tube, sheet, and wire are worked from ingot or other cast forms) or secondary metalworking (where mill products are further formed into finished products by hot forging, cold forging, drawing, extrusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... is not definitely known. It is probable that hydrogen is involved in their formation as in that of flakes 4 . Since, unlike flakes, they generally occur in cast ingots or shaped castings they are called cast state flakes. Here again, however, the grain boundaries must be occupied by precipitates which make...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... for the three-point bending test. Nondestructive Evaluation The internal cracks that occurred in these ingots were similar to those of commercial castings. Internal crack lengths were measured on the transverse cross section at one-half the height of these castings by means of the color-checking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... voids with long empty tubes develop when the die design allows hot spots to develop and remain in the casting during the solidification cycle. The funnel shape is similar to the “pipe” features created during solidification of large ingots in steel mills. If the funnel intersected the casting surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... pearlite range (Troostite). In a pipe of 18-8 austenitic stainless steel a weakly magnetizable spot of limited size was found. This inclusion too was probably more alloy-deficient than the austenitic steel, similar to the ones described above. All three cases were casting defects. Inclusions Steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of service. Applications Electric radiant element heaters are used in furnaces that hold molten potline aluminum before casting into ingots. The tubes, used to protect the elements from the furnace atmosphere and from splashes of molten aluminum, should have lasted 2 to 3 years. The tubes were made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., or aluminium, either singly or in combination, the reaction between carbon and iron oxide is prevented and the steel lies quietly in the mould and is termed “killed.” Depending on the degree of deoxidation applied to a particular cast, a range of steel ingots between the two extremes can be produced, the term...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel castings, ingots, blooms, and slabs [ 5 ]. Incidences of catastrophic cracking in low nickel austenitic stainless steel coils at a customer’s end during routine unwinding/uncoiling of the material came to light in form of a customer complaint and prompted a thorough investigation. The coils...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... on a macroscale, in the concentration of alloying elements from the surface to the center of an ingot or casting. Macrosegregation becomes more pronounced with increasing section size. Macrosegregation cannot be reduced by homogenization heat treatment. Segregation generally degrades the physical and chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... out via the vacuum. It is also effective at removing volatile trace elements (arsenic, copper, etc.) as well as nitrogen and hydrogen, to a lesser degree ( Ref 95 ). Vacuum Arc Remelting Vacuum arc remelting (VAR) begins with an ingot that has previously been cast. The ingot is held from above...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and found to be within the specified limits. Discussion Nonmetallic inclusions are an inevitable consequence of commercial alloys and their refractive melting or casting practices. Inclusions that originate in the ingot/raw materials are carried on to forged products even though their shape may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... is subject to some question; potential sources include: Present in the steel from the ingot as a result of the steelmaking practice. Introduced into the pot in some repair sequence. The examination of the pot did not find all of the characteristics that would be expected with either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Titanic to Ocean Dock were cast off and the RMS Titanic started down the Southampton Water into the Solent, then into the English Channel. As the RMS Titanic passed a neighboring dock where the SS New York was moored, a surge of water from the RMS Titanic caused the SS New York to break its cables so...