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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Three radiant tubes, made of three different high-temperature alloys, were removed from a carburizing furnace after approximately eight months of service when they showed evidence of failure by collapsing (telescoping) in a region 30 cm (12 in.) from the tube bottoms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A gear manufacturer experienced service problems with various gears and pinions that had worn prematurely or had fractured. All gears and pinions were forged from 1.60Mn-5Cr steel and were case hardened by pack carburizing. Gear Failure: One of the gears showed severe wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Several teeth of a bevel pinion which was part of a drive unit in an edging mill failed after three months in service. Specifications required that the pinion be made from a 2317 steel forging and that the teeth be carburized and hardened to a case hardness of 56 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Two intermediate impeller drive gears (made of AMS 6263 steel, gas carburized, hardened, and tempered) exhibited evidence of pitting and abnormal wear after production tests in test-stand engines. The gears were examined for hardness, case depth, and microstructure of case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The failure of a spiral bevel gear from the transmission of a helicopter was discovered when the transmission was removed after an in-flight incident. Two adjacent teeth from the carburized AISI 9310 steel gear were found to have undergone fatigue failure. Internal initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The causes for the defects were reported based on previous investigation of heat treatment facilities. Oxide layer was caused by inadequate purging of air before carburization while decarburization was attributed to defects in the copper plating applied to the gear for its protection during austenitizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the exteriors of the parts were clean and smooth, and there was evidence of a case. Examination of the flat surfaces of the parts revealed surface cracking where actual failure had not occurred. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a low-alloy carburizing steel. The microstructure was compatible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation of sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Aircraft missile launcher attachment bolts fabricated from cadmium-coated Hy-tuf steel were found broken. Subsequent analysis of the broken bolts indicated three causes of failure. First, the bolts had been carburized, which was not in conformance with the heat treating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0009190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract In an industrial application, 24 speed-increaser gearboxes were used to transmit 258 kW (346 hp) and increase speed from 55 to 375 rev/min. The gears were parallel shaft, single helical, carburized, and ground. The splash lubrication system used a mineral oil without antiscuff...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... necessary to have a lower case depth, carburize less deeply, and prevent overheating that causes brittleness and leads also to increased case depth, or else use a fine-grained steel of lower hardenability. Case depth Cracking (fracturing) Gas carburizing Overheating Sleeves C15 Heat treating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Microstructural examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... carbide formations in a martensite matrix and outlining of prior-austenite grains by a network of fine, white lines. These features indicated that the material had been transformed by carburization by the impinging gas. The outer surface exhibited a heavy scale deposit and numerous cracks that originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... carburized. The cylinder in which the spool fitted was made of 1117 steel, also gas carburized. Investigation (visual inspection, low magnification images, 400x images, metallographic exam, and hardness testing) supported the conclusion that momentary sliding contact between the spool and the cylinder wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
.... Failure resulted from the culmination of two principal fatigue cracks which developed on approximately parallel planes from the roots of adjacent threads. A longitudinal section through the screw thread on the piston rod showed it had been carburized but not hardened, and that subsequent surface de...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a crack extending radially from the bore to the surface of one of the tooth flanks. The crack runs the entire width of the bore, passing through an oil hole in the hub, across the spoke plate and out to the tip of one of the teeth. Design requirements call for the gear teeth to be carburized, while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract Ball joints made from carburized En 353 (BS970:815A16) steel failed after several hours of being fitted into vehicles. The parts were forged, machined, and thread rolled. The threads were copper plated to prevent carburization. The heat treatment consisted of carburizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the high operating stress if they had been welded satisfactorily and hardened correctly, and whether it made any sense to case harden highly stressed chains of this type. Chains Gas carburizing Wear Welded joints Steel chain Joining-related failures (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... slow crack growth until final fracture. The natural stress concentration at the thread root, when tightened to the required clamp load concomitant with the presence of cracks in the carburized case, was sufficient to exceed the critical stress intensity for hydrogen-assisted stress cracking (HASC...