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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Three radiant tubes, made of three different high-temperature alloys, were removed from a carburizing furnace after approximately eight months of service when they showed evidence of failure by collapsing (telescoping) in a region 30 cm (12 in.) from the tube bottoms in the vicinity...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Three radiant tubes from a carburizing furnace that failed by corrosion. (a) Corroded portions of tubes made of Hastelloy X (top), experimental alloy 634 (center), and RA 333 alloy (bottom). 0.3x. (b) to (d) Unetched sections from corroded portions of the tubes: (b) alloy 634 tube More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 10 Microstructure observation: ( a ) carburizing layer, ( b ) transition zone, ( c ) matrix More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A gear manufacturer experienced service problems with various gears and pinions that had worn prematurely or had fractured. All gears and pinions were forged from 1.60Mn-5Cr steel and were case hardened by pack carburizing. Gear Failure: One of the gears showed severe wear on the side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Several teeth of a bevel pinion which was part of a drive unit in an edging mill failed after three months in service. Specifications required that the pinion be made from a 2317 steel forging and that the teeth be carburized and hardened to a case hardness of 56 HRC and a core...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The failure of a spiral bevel gear from the transmission of a helicopter was discovered when the transmission was removed after an in-flight incident. Two adjacent teeth from the carburized AISI 9310 steel gear were found to have undergone fatigue failure. Internal initiation occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract Two intermediate impeller drive gears (made of AMS 6263 steel, gas carburized, hardened, and tempered) exhibited evidence of pitting and abnormal wear after production tests in test-stand engines. The gears were examined for hardness, case depth, and microstructure of case and core...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Occasional failures were experienced in spool-type valves used in a hydraulic system. When a valve would fail, the close-fitting rotary valve would seize, causing loss of flow control of the hydraulic oil. The rotating spool in the valve was made of 8620 steel and was gas carburized...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) Fig. 9 Macro structure showing carburized layer: ( a ) tooth, ( b ) fracture surface smoothed Fig. 10 Microstructure observation: ( a ) carburizing layer, ( b ) transition zone, ( c ) matrix Fig. 1 Cracked gear and gear-shaft assembled (offered by manufacturer) Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening Pipe Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The causes for the defects were reported based on previous investigation of heat treatment facilities. Oxide layer was caused by inadequate purging of air before carburization while decarburization was attributed to defects in the copper plating applied to the gear for its protection during austenitizing...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Section from carburized double cone (the bearing ring was intact on receipt from the customer). Lines of corrosion pits which can often be mistaken for cracks can be seen at roller intervals (a). The corrosion pits initiated coarse grain spalling at (b). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Unaffected case carburized gear tooth. Microhardness 724 HV. 400 × More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Cross sections through the carburized 1117 steel cylinders from two spool-type hydraulic valves. The cylinder of the valve that operated satisfactorily (a) had little retained austenite in the case,whereas the cylinder of the seized valve (b) had much retained austenite that transformed More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Stress corrosion cracks originating at exterior surface. Carburized zone at internal surface, transverse section, etch: V2A-Pickle. 90 × More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Structure of carburized zone at the internal surface. Longitudinal section, etch: V2A-pickle. 500 × More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Evidence of galling, or adhesive wear, on the inner surface of a carburized 4720 steel inner cone of a roller bearing. Galling was confirmed by the use of electron probe x-ray microanalysis. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Pitting and wear pattern on a carburized AMS 6263 steel impeller drive gear. Approximately 2.3x More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Metallographic section from within the carburized case corresponds to a position 1.25 millimeters below the race surface. Magnification 1000× 5% Nital Etch Matrix: Tempered Martensite Close examination of the butterfly wings revealed fine cracks (arrowed). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Carburized 4817 steel spiral bevel gear. The gear broke from fatigue at acute-angle intersections of mounting holes and tooth-root fillets as a result of through hardening. Dimensions given in inches More