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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... retained austenite in the failed cylinder to transform to martensite. The increase in volume resulted in sufficient size distortion to cause interference between the cylinder and the spool, seizing, and loss of flow control. The failed parts had been carburized in a process in which the carbon potential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to consider when dealing with the brittle fracture of carburized parts is the possible formation of surface intergranular oxidation [ 9 ]. However, in present case, no intergranular internal oxidation occurred on the case-hardened layer. In addition, grain boundary carbides were not found in the carburized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the exteriors of the parts were clean and smooth, and there was evidence of a case. Examination of the flat surfaces of the parts revealed surface cracking where actual failure had not occurred. Chemical analysis showed the material to be a low-alloy carburizing steel. The microstructure was compatible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the plating process (in the case that the parts were electroplated rather than vacuum coated). The bolts were loaded to 80% of the UTS and sustained for 200 h. No failures occurred as a result of this testing. Also, ARL examined a number of bolts from different manufacturing lots for carburization and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a equals the percentage by volume of austenite, and C equals the percentage by weight of carbon dissolved in austenite and martensite. If the value of (Δ V / V ) is known or can be computed, then internal stresses that are developed in a part due to temperature differences (Δ T ) arising from either...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract Ball joints made from carburized En 353 (BS970:815A16) steel failed after several hours of being fitted into vehicles. The parts were forged, machined, and thread rolled. The threads were copper plated to prevent carburization. The heat treatment consisted of carburizing in a cyanide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... formations in a martensite matrix and outlining of prior-austenite grains by a network of fine, white lines. These features indicated that the material had been transformed by carburization by the impinging gas. The outer surface exhibited a heavy scale deposit and numerous cracks that originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Figure 1 shows exploded view of drive shaft. Figure 2 shows failed bearing cup. Fig. 1 Exploded view of drive shaft Fig. 2 Bearing cup, good and failed parts Analysis of Problem Cause and Effect Diagram Cause and effect diagram is also known as Ishikawa diagram which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... had not seized, and there was no evidence of heat discoloration in the galled areas. The inner cone, made of modified 4720 steel and carburized for wear resistance, rode on an AISI type 630 (17-4 PH) stainless steel spacer. Consequently, it was desirable to determine whether the galled spots contained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to have a lower case depth, carburize less deeply, and prevent overheating that causes brittleness and leads also to increased case depth, or else use a fine-grained steel of lower hardenability. Case depth Cracking (fracturing) Gas carburizing Overheating Sleeves C15 Heat treating-related...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Several teeth of a bevel pinion which was part of a drive unit in an edging mill failed after three months in service. Specifications required that the pinion be made from a 2317 steel forging and that the teeth be carburized and hardened to a case hardness of 56 HRC and a core...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The 8620 steel latch tip, carburized and then induction hardened to a minimum surface hardness of 62 HRC, on the main-clutch stop arm on a business machine fractured during normal operation when the latch tip was subjected to intermittent impact loading. Fractographic examination 9x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract A gear manufacturer experienced service problems with various gears and pinions that had worn prematurely or had fractured. All gears and pinions were forged from 1.60Mn-5Cr steel and were case hardened by pack carburizing. Gear Failure: One of the gears showed severe wear on the side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The part was plated with copper, which acted as a stop-off during carburizing of the offset, circular thrust-bearing surface surrounding the 16-mm (0.637-in.) diam hole ( Fig. 1a ). The bearing surface was case hardened to a depth of 0.05 to 0.1 mm (0.002 to 0.005 in.), then austempered to obtain a minimum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... if a nonuniform composition exists; this nonuniformity may be the result of segregation, or it may be the result of processing, as in a carburized part. Such inhomogeneities may produce a variation in transformation temperature at locations that are geometrically equivalent and that cool at the same rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may be the result of segregation, or it may be the result of processing, as in a carburized part. Such inhomogeneities may produce a variation in transformation temperature at locations that are geometrically equivalent and that cool at the same rate. Nonuniform transformational stresses that result...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 32 Localized melting at the surface of a part made from AISI M2 tool steel. (a) Rippled surface appearance after hardening. 0.75×. The surface was slightly carburized, which lowered the melting point. (b) Microstructure shows the melted surface region and a zone beneath it containing More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Metallographic section from the AISI P20 mold shown in Fig. 19 . (a) Top part of a macroetched (10% aqueous nitric acid) disk cut from the mold revealing a heavily carburized case. Actual size. (b) Micrograph showing gross carbide buildup at the surface with an underlying region More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 20 Metallographic section from the AISI P20 mold shown in Fig. 19 . (a) Top part of a macroetched (10% aqueous nitric acid) disk cut from the mold revealing a heavily carburized case. Actual size. (b) Micrograph showing gross carbide buildup at the surface with an underlying region More