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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... confirmed graphitic corrosion. The environmental reaction started from the outside. The presence of a sulfate-reducing bacteria is frequently associated with clay-type soils. The selective leaching of iron by this region leaves a residue rich in carbon, silicon, and phosphorus. The high sulfur content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in 12.5 mm thick ASTM A285, grade B, steel plate. One joint was welded using the semiautomatic submerged arc process with one pass on each side. A second joint was welded manually by the shielded metal arc process using E6010 welding rod and four passes on each side. The silicon content of the shielded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... were not nitrided, as confirmed through metallography and microhardness testing. These components also had a silicon content nearly double of that specified. Finally, both of the spiral spring pins failed to achieve the 3,900 lb double shear load. One of these pins contained carbon approximately 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-silicon ferritic iron castings of ASTM International specification A1095 Table 3 Compositions (in wt%) of the high-silicon ferritic iron castings of ASTM International specification A1095 Element Type (a) SG SiMo MG SiMo CG SiMo Carbon 2.90–3.70 2.80–3.60 2.70–3.50...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... employing high-temperature solution heat treatment; adding elements (stabilizers) such as titanium, columbium, or tantalum that are stronger carbide formers than chromium; and lowering the carbon content below 0.03%. Protective coatings discussed later in this chapter and superalloy substrates generally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in conjunction with various nonmetals such as silicon carbide and boron compounds. These additives are used to delay carbon debonding and graphite oxidation. In addition, they often act as pore-blockers, and many of them have a net positive effect on the mechanical strength of the refractories. Oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... a profound effect on both the martensite hardness and the steel hardenability. The mathematical estimation for steel surface hardness is based upon carbon content alone. The predominant additional elements of interest in hardenability calculations are manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to elevated temperatures. To these steels belong for example the silicon spring steels and the Al alloyed nitriding steels ( Figs. 3 and 4 ). When the whole decarburisation proceeds in the γ-area, that is above 911°C in unalloyed steels (case d in Fig. 1 ), the carbon content goes over gradually...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... particles detected in Fig. 1 showing composition differences. (a) Portion of EDS scan obtained from one of the (bright) iron based particles in Fig. 1(b) . Some traces of carbon are also seen here, probably an oily residue on the flake. The silicon may be due to a dirt contaminant. (b) Portion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., such as carbon, manganese, and silicon, and to partially purge dissolved gases, such as hydrogen and oxygen. The silicon was added to provide deoxidation of the steel. Phosphorus and sulfur were reduced by the use of a special molten slag of basic composition placed on the top of the molten steel in the ladle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is observed in the impeller and cutwaters of the casing. The degree of material damage due to this mechanism depends upon the bulk hardness of the material, the carbon content, and the characteristics of the solids present [ 6 ]. Important particle characteristics include size, shape, hardness, and mass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... causing a localized seam Oxide inclusion or skins, seams G 143 (a) Folded films of graphitic luster in the wall of the casting Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks G 144 Hard inclusions in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots (a) Defects that under some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., as evidenced by the decarburization and graphitization of the base material. Finally, the differential thermal expansion of the carbon and stainless steels produced the necessary internal stress to produce extensive cracking. Once the carbon steel was exposed to the contents of the pressure vessel, corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Severe pitting corrosion of a carbon steel tube was observed in the air preheater of a power plant, which runs on rice straw firing. Approximately 1450 tubes were removed from Stage 3 of the preheater (air inlet and flue gas outlet) due to corrosion and local bursting. Samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., silicon, and copper. These additional elements are suggestive of the presence of erosion and/or corrosion debris from metallic components within the cooling system. The deposit that was scraped from the cylinder was found to contain primarily carbon and nickel, along with detectable iron, silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047879
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by the carbon steel shaft. The stainless steel used for the end cap was similar to type 316 stainless steel except for a higher chromium content. The carbon content of the forged steel used for the shaft was greater than the maximum specified for ASTM A105, grade 2. The base metal that was not affected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.3 Conradson carbon on 10% distillation vol., w/c 0.30 0.33 Upper heat content, kcal/k 10,970 10,950 Water and sediments, vol. % 0.1 0.1 The Diesel C fuel used contains excessive amounts of SO 3 , carbon, and sodium, which can produce high-temperature corrosion and severe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... type of nitriding steel to the following nominal composition in wt.%: Carbon 0.2–0.3 Silicon 0.10–0.35 Manganese 0.4–0.65 Nickel 0.4 maximum Chromium 2.9–3.5 Molybdenum 0.4–0.7 Sulphur 0.05 maximum Phosphorus 0.05 maximum The defects which were initially...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for bearing raceway problem Element Specification rangefor AISI 1070, % Content in steelobtained, % Carbon 0.65–0.75 0.74 Manganese 0.60–0.90 0.97 Phosphorus 0.11 0.04 Sulfur 0.026 0.05 Silicon 0.10–0.20 0.23 Nickel … 0.07 Chromium … 0.11 Molybdenum … 0.22...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the nonintergranular fracture areas (cleavage planes) is shown in Table 4 . The data show that the chromium and carbon content at the grain boundaries is two to five times higher than that inside the grain (cleavage plane) and that the silicon concentration inside the grain is a little higher than that at the grain...