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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in Fig. 12 ( Ref 56 ). Fig. 11 Schematic of the wear process of fiber-reinforced epoxy composite. Adapted from Ref 56 Fig. 12 Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the worn surfaces of (a) the compositions 5 vol% polytetrafluoroethylene + 5 vol% graphite + 15 vol% short carbon...
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 8 Scanning electron microscopy images of the reinforcements: (a) carbon fibers, 3000×, (b) glass fibers, 800×, and (c) aramid fibers, 1000×. Back-scattering images of the worn surfaces of fibers-reinforced polyimide composites under dry sliding: (d) carbon fiber–reinforced polyetherimide More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... km). Details of UD composites studied in adhesive wear mode Table 4 Details of UD composites studied in adhesive wear mode No. Reinforcement (UD) Resin and V f Epoxy Polyester PTFE/Teflon 1 High-strength carbon fiber (HS-CFR) HS-CFR-E (42, 52, 59, 65) HS-CFR-EST (42...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 Specific wear rates of hybrid composites formulated by two structures, sandwich and layer, (composite aramid fiber-carbon fiber polyamide am). Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Scanning electron microscope micrographs of worn surfaces of PA66 unidirectional composites. (a) Carbon fiber (parallel, P) showing fiber thinning, fiber fracture, fiber pulverization (left portion) and fiber matrix debonding (middle portion). (b) Aramid fiber (AF) in the normal More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 (a) Schematic of basic wear failure mechanisms observed in (a1) (a2) parallel, P and (a3) antiparallel AP orientations. (a1) A, fiber slicing, B, fiber matrix debonding; C, fiber cracking, j and D, fiber bending (especially in the case of aramid fiber or carbon fiber). (a2 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 General trends indicating effect of microstructure of a composite and the properties of fillers on adhesive wear of composites. p , applied pressure; H M , hardness of matrix. AP, P, and N refer to orientations of fibers with respect to sliding direction: AP, antiparallel; P More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials. The inspection of these components is substantially different from that of later fiber-reinforced material systems. It was the rapid growth of the composites industry, in both material types and applications, that spawned the need for effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 Failure wear mechanisms of unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer composites with different orientations of fibers with respect to sliding direction against a smooth metal surface. (a) Normal aramid fibers. (b) Parallel carbon fibers. (c) Wear reduction mechanism due to hybridization More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 12 Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the worn surfaces of (a) the compositions 5 vol% polytetrafluoroethylene + 5 vol% graphite + 15 vol% short carbon fiber (SCF) and (b) 5 vol% nano- titanium oxide + 5 vol% graphite + 15 vol% SCF at 2 MPa and 1 m/s. Adapted from Ref 56 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract The 16 mm diam 6 x 37 fiber-core improved plow steel wire rope on a scrapyard crane failed after two weeks of service under normal loading conditions. This type of rope was made of 0.71 to 0.75% carbon steel wires and a tensile strength of 1696 to 1917 MPa. The rope broke when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... This review would not be complete without a discussion of moisture-induced failure mechanisms in composite materials. The discussion focuses on glass and carbon fiber reinforcement, limited to composites reinforced with continuous, uniaxially oriented fibers. Damage mechanisms may take several forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... composites. The data are reported for various experimental conditions and pv (pressure × velocity) factors as reported in the literature as given in Table 2 . Fig. 8 Micrograph of the worn surface for a phenolic resin–aramid fiber composite showing partial coverage of the polymer pin by transfer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... at temperatures of 80 to 90 deg C (176 to 194 deg F). The fracture was unusual in that it was of a fibrous nature, the fibers-which were orientated radially-were readily detachable. The surface of the spindle adjacent to the fracture had an etched appearance and the mode of cracking in this region suggested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Replacement sprockets installed on chain drive shafts for winding fibers exhibited excessive wear. Metallographic and chemical analyses conducted on the original and replacement sprockets showed that the material of the replacement sprocket was 1020 low-carbon steel, whereas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract Mechanical properties of wire ropes, their chemical composition, and the failure analysis process for them are described. The wires are manufactured from high-carbon, plain carbon steel, with high-strength ropes most often manufactured from AISI Grade 1074. During visual failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... recovery. Glass fiber reinforced composites Hydrolisis Oxidation Glass-reinforced nylon 12 Environmental cracking (plastics) A component of a water filtration unit failed while being used in service for approximately eight months. The filter system had been installed in a commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of a few formulations of thermoset composites. The relevant micrograph is given in Fig. 9 . It is seen from these results that the wear resistance of phenolic resin increases by almost two orders of magnitude when fillers such as carbon and aramid fibers are added to the phenolic resin matrix...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Fiber lines in the ERW zone of one of the cross sections removed from sample 2. Arrows point to hard-appearing microstructures, one of which is cracked. Nital etch. 200×. Fig. 8 Closeup view of cracking (arrows) in a band of hard microstructure. Nital etch. 500×. Crack Origins/Path...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the lengthwise (axial) direction of the fiber. The design of such processing would not be possible without an understanding of chemical structure. This introductory article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and thus their eventual...