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carbon equivalence

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... fracture of the roadarm was caused by a combination of too high a carbon equivalent in the castings and the lack of preheating and postheating during the welding procedure. A pre-heat and tempering after welding were added to the welding procedure. Gas metal arc welding Heat affected zone Sand...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showing a higher-than-normal carbon content and/or carbon equivalent. Larger and more numerous cope side graphite nodules broke open, causing ferrite caps or burrs. They then became the mechanism of failure by breaking down the oil film and eroding the beating material. A byproduct was heat, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... section at the hole area showed that the porosity extended a considerable distance into the pipe wall. Metallographic examination revealed a graphite structure distribution expected in centrifugally cast iron with a hypoeutectic carbon equivalent. Chemical analyses of a nonporous sample had a composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... further reduced the strength. Recommendations included that the chemistry and inoculation should be controlled to produce type A graphite structure. The chemistry control should aim for a carbon equivalent close to 4.3% to achieve adequate fluidity for thin sections and to alleviate gas defects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A spherical carbon steel fixed-catalyst bed reactor, fabricated from French steel A42C-3S, approximately equivalent to ASTM A201 grade B, failed after 20 years of service while in a standby condition. The unit was found to contain primarily hydrogen at the time of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was equivalent to a 30% reduction in thickness. Residual stresses were measured at about 135 MPa (20 ksi). The HAZ was found to be sensitized. The tanks had been stored in a coastal atmosphere for about 4 years before installation. The failure was attributed to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... be made using cellulosic electrodes. For high-risk girth welds, an increase in preheat and/or a reduction in the local stress by controlling lift height or depositing the hot pass locally before lifting may be required. Carbon equivalent Pipelines Weld defects Welding electrodes API X65...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of the hull attesting to the integrity of the coating systems used on the hull for the past 20 years. A chemical analysis of the hull plate is: 0.16%C, 0.68%Mn, 0.2%Si, 0.02%S, 0.007%P. The carbon equivalent is 0.28% using the widely accepted carbon equivalent formula for carbon manganese steels: (Eq 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... necessitated development of low carbon, low carbon equivalent (CE), fine grained microalloyed steels with adequate low temperature impact toughness properties. 4 Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is one of the major producers of API grade linepipes in the country...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... Although shafts of mild steel can usually be welded satisfactorily without significant effect on the parent metal adjacent to the weld, medium carbon and low alloy steels showing a greater carbon equivalent and, therefore, hardenability, necessitate the use of special techniques in order to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... composition of 0.21C-0.77Mn; composition of the 125 mm (5 in.) plate was 0.19C-0.76Mn, giving carbon equivalents (CE) of 0.34 and 0.32, respectively (CE = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15); these CE levels are indications of good weldability and resistance to weld cracking. The welds were made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... paint (light gray) in the crack. Material Results of chemical analysis are shown in Table 1 . The plates corresponded to A36 steel. No appreciable alloy elements were found (only residual amounts), and the carbon content was not high. The carbon equivalents (CE) were low. Plate A had a CE...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... o'clock position, with arrow indicating a surface defect. (c) At the 6 o'clock position. All approximately 0.2x The chemical composition of a section near the 12 o'clock position was evaluated and was satisfactory for gray cast iron with a carbon equivalent of 4.56. However, the phosphorus content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... The compositions of the inner and outer plates are given in Table 1 . Although A283 is not very restrictive ( Table 1 ), the analysis showed that the material met the specifications and appeared to be an easily welded steel with a carbon equivalent (CE) of 0.42: CE = % C + % Mn 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Gray Iron Segregation Introduction to Casting Failures Casting Discontinuities International Classification of Casting Defects Gray Iron Composition and Microstructure Carbon Equivalent and Carbon Saturation Graphite Example 1: Cracking in a Gray Iron Cylinder Head Caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the filler metal, and carbon from the base metal, to approximate a highly hardenable low alloy steel upon fast solidification and cooling. The base metal had a D I of 10.2 mm (0.4 in.), and the average weld D I was likely greater than 68.6 mm (2.7 in.). The measured equivalent hardnesses were 74 HRB...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... subsequently developed. The rod was made from a medium carbon or low-alloy steel in the hardened and fully tempered condition. Evidence indicated that, following modification to the oil feed system, the rod that broke was returned to service with fine cracks present immediately below the weld deposit, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... approximately in line with the crankpin center line. The fracture was of the fatigue type, slowly developing cracks having started from opposite sides of each tapped hole and crept across the section. Microstructure of the crankshaft indicated the material was a plain carbon steel, the carbon content being...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... causing a localized seam Oxide inclusion or skins, seams G 143 (a) Folded films of graphitic luster in the wall of the casting Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks G 144 Hard inclusions in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots (a) Defects that under some...