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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract A roadarm for a tracked vehicle failed during preproduction vehicle testing. The arm was a weldment of two cored low-alloy steel sand castings specified to ASTM A 148, grade 120–95. A maximum carbon content of 0.32% was specified. The welding procedure called for degreasing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... hardenability but that the specified carbon content (0.29%) was too low. The low specified carbon content resulted in unacceptably low hardness. Because hardness largely controls wear rate, an early failure occurred. The specification for this part was changed so that a higher carbon content (0.45% C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... spalling; the microstructure at the surface consisted of coarse acicular martensite with retained austenite. Also, a coarse network of precipitated carbide particles showed that the carburization of the case had appreciably exceeded the most favorable carbon content. This evidence supported the following...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
..., toughness, and ductility are mainly determined by the carbon content of wheel steels. The fatigue crack growth resistance is insensitive to composition and microstructure, while the fatigue crack initiation life increases with the decrease of austenite grain size and pearlite colony size. The dynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... showing a higher-than-normal carbon content and/or carbon equivalent. Larger and more numerous cope side graphite nodules broke open, causing ferrite caps or burrs. They then became the mechanism of failure by breaking down the oil film and eroding the beating material. A byproduct was heat, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the carbon content was twice what it should have been. Based on this and results of ultrasonic testing, which revealed that the banding occurred in 24-ft lengths, it was decided to close the bridge and replace the defective steel. The steel used in the construction of this bridge was specified as ASTM A441...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Microstructural examination showed welding conditions were such that a carburizing atmosphere developed, which led to an increase in carbon content and hardening at certain locations such as terminal bells and lap joints. This explained the processing difficulties during the threading operation. Hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... As a result of abrasion, a hard layer of martensite was formed on the wire. The wire was made susceptible to fatigue cracking, while bending around the sheave, by this brittle surface layer. The carbon content and tensile strength of the wire was found lower than specifications. As a corrective measure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., hydrogen embrittlement, or both. At subzero temperatures, the steel was below its ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. These circumstances suggest a brittle condition. Steps to avoid this type of failure: For cold conditions, the steel plate should have a low carbon content and a high manganese...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... approximately in line with the crankpin center line. The fracture was of the fatigue type, slowly developing cracks having started from opposite sides of each tapped hole and crept across the section. Microstructure of the crankshaft indicated the material was a plain carbon steel, the carbon content being...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the dished end that had been kept in storage. Solution annealing was recommended to relieve residual stress, thereby reducing the probability of failure. It was also recommended that the carbon content of the steel be lowered, i.e., that a 316L grade be used. Sensitization Weld decay 316 UNS S31600...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to avoid the precipitation (including reduction of carbon content, appropriate heat treatment, cold work of steel, reduction of austenitic grain size and stabilizing elements) were described. The presence of microcracks due to highly localized heat concentrations with consequent thermal expansion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... series steel with a carbon content of 0.38 to 0.53%, a hardness of 35 to 40 HRC for the shaft, and a hardness of 50 to 55 HRC for the notch (which was case hardened). Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness testing, and magnetic particle inspection) supported the conclusions that all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and core. It was found that gear 1 had a lower hardness than specified while the case hardness of gear 2 was found to be within limits. Both the pitting and the wear pattern were revealed to be more severe on gear 1 than on gear 2. Surface-contact fatigue (pitting) of gear 1 (cause of lower carbon content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0047521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... casting, and brittleness of the high-hardness HAZ of the weld associated with the abnormally high carbon content in the central part of the channel. Welding of channel edges contributed to harmful gradients in section moduli and should be avoided in future assemblies. Brackets Flanges Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... over 1% C, higher than the carbon content of the base metal. The cracks in the drain groove surface could have occurred after arc gouging, during subsequent stress-relieving, or during the hydrostatic test. Flame cutting is not recommended for the type of steel used in the boiler drum because it can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001416
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Hydraulic cylinders on three identical presses failed in a similar manner after approximately ten years' service life. The cylinder was a steel casting having a carbon content of the order of 0.3 to 0.4%. During machining of the internal surfaces, a sharp corner had been left...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... material which fractured at the time of the mishap was in the form of a narrow strip, situated slightly to one side of the center of the shaft. The material was a mild steel in the normalized or annealed condition, having a carbon content of approximately 0.3%. The cracking was characteristic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... section of the hook adjacent to the plane of fracture, showed the hook was made from a killed steel free from major segregation. Microscopic examination showed the material to be a mild steel in the normalized condition, the carbon content being of the order of 0.25%. Bend tests showed the material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... examination showed the deposit to possess a large grain size with a low carbon content disposed as carbides along the grain boundaries, a feature which would provide an explanation of the brittle behavior. Subsequent inspection showed that this tube was one of several of the batch ordered for retubing...