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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... homogenization of the carbides in the resultant hob, and lower sulfur content. Carbides Coatings Hobbing cutters Microstructural effects Sulfur Wear M2 UNS T11302 Brittle fracture Background A gear manufacturer reported recurring premature failures of titanium nitrided M2 tool steel gear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature chosen as a compromise between the recommended temperatures for the grades. Excessively high austenitizing temperatures promote grain growth and excessive retained austenite. Most tool steel grades have high carbon contents and rely on the undissolved portion of the carbides to control grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Most tool steel grades have high carbon contents and rely on the undissolved portion of the carbides to control grain growth. An excessive austenitizing temperature puts more carbon in solution, thus permitting grain growth as well as excess retained austenite due to suppression of the martensite start...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to that in the MC-type isolated carbides, reinforces the fact that carbide inhomogeneity in tool steels is higher in the presence of tungsten ( Ref 8 ). 5. Conclusion Although the average carbide content (3.065 vol%) is apparently normal for this grade of steel, field-to-field variations of carbide volume...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 9 Fracture in a thin medical device manufactured from type D 2 tool steel. (a) View showing a fractured massive carbide and associated matrix crack. Scanning electron micrograph. 1187× (b) Cross section through a cracked region in a similar part showing brittle fracture in the carbides More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 A properly heat treated tool of manganese oil-hardening steel has a martensitic structure (left) containing fine tempered martensite and carbides. An overheated tool material has an acicular martensitic structure (right) that cracks easily (see Fig. 5 ). Etchant, Nital; 700X. More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 Fracture in a thin medical device manufactured from type D2 tool steel. (a) View showing a fractured massive carbide and associated matrix crack. Scanning electron micrograph. Original magnification: 1187×. (b) Cross section through a cracked region in a similar part showing brittle More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 41 (a) Flange edge of a roll made from AISI D2 tool steel that chipped off during its initial use. Failure was due to poor carbide distribution and morphology, which embrittled the material. (b) Micrograph showing the poor carbide distribution and morphology in the roll. The grain size More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract The A2 tool steel mandrel, part of a rolling tool used for mechanically joining two tubes was fractured after making five rolled joints. A 6.4 mm diam hole was drilled by EDM through the square end of the hardened mandrel due to difficulty was experienced in withdrawing the tool...
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 4 (a) Optical microscopy observation of the worn surface of a steel after sliding against a tool steel. The presence of parallel grooves due to the action of hard carbides in the tool steel microstructure can be observed. (b) Scanning electron micrograph showing abrasive wear More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A segment from a premium-quality H13 tool steel die for die casting of aluminum failed after only 700 shots. The segment was subjected to visual, macroscopic, hardness, and metallographic testing. The investigation revealed that failure occurred as a result of fatigue at an electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pockets in the machined part that damage the workpiece by increasing the surface roughness and becoming stress raisers. The presence of carbides in cast iron can increase chipping of the cutting tool and have a deleterious effect on surface roughness ( Ref 7 ). Using polished or coated cutting tools...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 41(a) The flange edge of a roll made from AISI D2 tool steel that chipped off during its initial use. Failure was due to poor carbide distribution and morphology, which embrittled the material. See also Fig. 41(b) . More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 AISI M2 roughing tool that cracked just after heat treatment. (a) Cracks accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed a badly overaustenitized condition with a heavy grain-boundary carbide film, coarse plate martensite, and unstable retained austenite More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 17 AISI M2 roughing tool that cracked just after heat treatment. (a) Cracks accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed a badly overaustenitized condition with a heavy grain-boundary carbide film, coarse plate martensite, and unstable retained austenite More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract Two A6 tool steel (free machining grade) shafts, parts of a clamping device used for bending 5.7 cm OD tubing on an 8.6 cm radius, failed simultaneously under a maximum clamping force of 54,430 kg. The shaft was imposed with cyclic tensile stresses due to the clamping force...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 16 (a) AISI O1 tool steel ring forging that cracked during quenching. The forging was overaustenitized (unstable retained austenite was present) and was decarburized to a depth of approximately 0.5 mm (0.020 in.). Temper color was present on the crack walls. (b) Interior microstructure More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The accident at Three Mile Island Unit No. 2 on 28 March 1979 was the worst nuclear accident in US history. By Jan 1990, it was possible to electrochemically machine coupons from the lower head using a specially designed tool. The specimens contained the ER308L stainless steel cladding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An AISI D2 tool steel insert from a forming die used in the manufacture of automotive components failed prematurely during production. Results of various analyses and simulation tests indicated fatigue failure resulting from improper heat treatment. The fatigue fracture originated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (625 to 750 deg F). Because the spring was enclosed and mounted above the valve, its temperature was probably slightly lower. The 195 mm (7 in.) OD x 305 mm (12 in.) long spring was made from a 35 mm (1 in.) diam rod of H21 hot-work tool steel. It had been in service for about four years and had been...