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calibration

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and calibrated using the back-surface-reflection method to determine whether adequate ultrasonic penetration was available. Areas of indications were noted at approximately midheight and adjacent to the bore area. An axial angle-beam inspection from the outside was performed, mainly in the area of indications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... tip failures, all surface-damaged material should be removed and polished smooth before further flight. The blade should be correctly dressed. Also, the tachometer should be calibrated to ensure the engine/propeller combination is not operated in the critical speed range at normal cruising speeds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and calibration areas be isolated from molding areas. Ammonia, environment Atmospheric corrosion Circuit breakers Electric contacts, corrosion Electrical resistance 50Ag-50Mo 73W-27Ag Uniform corrosion Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stresses in a component or assembly. The article describes the steps required to calibrate instrumentation and to validate stress measurement results. It presents a practical approach to sample selection and specimen preparation, measurement location selection, and measurement depth selection, as well...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on calibrations based on alloys of similar composition. The response of the instrument to the alloys present is rarely linear with respect to composition. Thus, a general idea of the expected amount of any element is required in order to determine the composition in an accurate and precise manner. Of course...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the damaged surface. Crack sizes may not be determined with as high a level of certainty as desired due to equipment issues, lack of availability of representative calibration standards, or difficulties with field inspections. During a failure analysis there is no predetermined NDE method...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to the assembly of the joint that was supplied. Immediately on recognition that a failure had occurred, each of the wrenches used were verified for proper calibration. Because direct overtorque was seemingly ruled out as a failure mechanism, an independent metallurgical failure analysis was chartered to determine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... failed within several days of each other. Both cells had become difficult to zero and had shown calibration drift. Load cells on a similar tank that was used less often had not failed and were relatively easy to calibrate. Liquid Penetrant Testing Dye penetrant testing of the failed load cells...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., nebulizers, and injectors must also be compatible with the acid mixtures. The ICP-OES analysis uses calibration standards with known quantities of the analytes of interest. The ICP-OES analysis will produce a rich and intense spectrum for the major elements that must be accounted for in the analytical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the testing sequence. The resulting crack growth curve was used to calibrate a crack growth model. Calibration of Crack Growth Model It was necessary to determine the relationship between the fatigue crack growth produced by the sequence of loads applied in the simulation specimen and the growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The transform contains the spatial frequency content of the input image, which in the case of fatigue striations is the striation repeat frequency. Computer generated models of fatigue striations were used to calibrate the technique. Fig. 4(a) shows computer generated parallel lines with two repeat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the surface of the canister as it is rotated. The distance measurements are very precise with resolution to approximately 0.2 µm. Based on the calibration data generated, the accuracy of these distance measurements is ±10 µm, with 95% confidence. Test Preparations Reflectivity Error Mapping the Weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...)-traceable standard composition. Equipment used for the analysis must receive proper maintenance, including assurance that adequate calibrations have been upheld. Methods such as x-ray fluorescence (XRF), arc or spark optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and inductively coupled plasma OES (ICP-OES) can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and creates low pressure. The low pressure sucks in the surrounding air in calibrated quantity and forms a rich air–fuel mixture of more or less constant proportion for the given range of fuel gas flow rates. This air–fuel mixture then burns through the burner nozzle. An Incoloy 800 sleeve is provided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... were tied together using chromel wire and placed in a pre-calibrated isothermal section of the furnace. The samples were subjected to the flowing nitrogen atmosphere for varying lengths of time at a constant temperature of 1000 +/− 5 °C. Upon removal from the apparatus, the samples were weighed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... a calibrated digital hardness tester on the Rockwell C scale. The resulting hardness values ranged from 49.5 to 50.5 HRC. The etched structure revealed a matrix of tempered martensite interspersed with carbide particles. The extent of banding, which is shown in Fig. 4 , was considered acceptable. Evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0090030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of titanium is approximately three. Fig. 4 Example of an exceedance distribution of hard alpha Defect distributions for different melt and inspection conditions were developed by the industry through a combination of data analysis of titanium finds, modeling, and calibration with field...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: 2% Nital) Rockwell hardness test using B scale (HRB) was used to measure hardness of the failed wrench socket and two of its counterparts. Hardness tester was calibrated for B scale prior to hardness measurements. Table 1 shows hardness test results of all three wrench socket materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... frequency response measurements were made using a calibrated hammer and accelerometer. These measurements indicated that a mode, or natural frequency, of the wheel truing device was the culprit. A tuned damped absorber was designed and built to modify the resonance. This eliminated the problem...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... If the clamping force is excessive, the fasteners are stressed above their yield strength and the joint is loosened. Clamping force is typically controlled in the trucking industry by means of torque specifications. Therefore, calibration and proper application of torque wrenches is critical...