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calcium concentration

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride (pH 7.5 to 8.5) was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of austenitic stainless steel X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 12 (Material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the impact surface had a variety of phases, including corundum, calcium aluminates, magnesiowüstite, and spinels. The fracture surfaces of specimen B contained a high concentration of elongated (Mn, Cr)S inclusions ( Table 13 and Figure 3 ). In most cases, (Mn, Cr)S was detected along with oxide phases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contribute directly to the formation of calcium carbonate, a critical factor in the buildup of scale and pitting corrosion on heat exchanger tubes. heat exchanger tubes pitting corrosion scale formation IA/PA mild steel scale deposits chemical analysis calcium concentration Mild steel (alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... . These corrosion products were analyzed with the help of an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) attached to the SEM. The corrosion product consisted of various elements such as silicon, sulfur, potassium, chlorine, and calcium. Figure 10 shows the areas consisting of high concentrations of silicon and chlorine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... stress-corrosion cracking beneath the pitted areas on the OD. The likely cause of the cracking was chloride stress corrosion, with chlorides deriving from the marine atmosphere and concentrating under the insulation around the support rings. A complete insulation evaluation, including repair...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dissolves in the molten glass and reprecipitates as one or more compositionally modified crystalline phases. CMAS, calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicate. Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.15–0.30 Copper 0.093 NR Nickel 1.87 1.65–2 Chromium 0.75 0.70–0.90 Molybdenum 0.25 0.20–0.30 Aluminum 0.034 NR Calcium 0.0012 NR (a) NR, no requirement Hardness It was initially suspected that hydrogen embrittlement caused crack initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to contain sulfur, mainly from the flue gas, and calcium and chlorine, mainly from the sea water. The gray corrosion product was interspersed with rust and a black carbonaceous deposit. Corrosion pitting and poor weld penetration, with carbide precipitation and heavy etching at grain boundaries, indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was found to be 69.5% Cu, 29.1% Zn, 1.33% Sn, and 0.046% As. Corrosion Deposits The corrosion deposits on the inner surface of the tube and the fracture surface were analyzed using the energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) technique. Copper, zinc, arsenic, tin, silver, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, iron, sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... concentration in the concrete. Since the shear stirrups were closer to the surface than any of the rebar, they were also in an environment that would initiate corrosion. The chloride distribution profiles were modeled using Fick's law of diffusion to determine effective chloride diffusivities ( D cl...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the outside surface where pitting and intergranular cracking had occurred. The localized nature of the initial damage indicated that a corrosive medium had concentrated on the surface, probably due to a leaky seal. Reduction of hardness to 22 HRC or lower and inspection of seals were recommended to prevent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... corrosion deposits, which penetrated the pipe throughout the grain boundaries of the material and concentrated in the matrix in a layer near the inside surface of the pipe, were observed. The presence of H2S in the produced fluids and the appearance of the gray deposit indicated that the tube suffered H2S...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of aluminum and calcium in the streak, most likely as oxide inclusions. Aluminum is added for deoxidation while calcium may arise from interactions with the slag to form non-metallic inclusions. Because nonmetallic (oxide) particles are hard and brittle, it is conceivable that shell cracking would initiate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be that of 18CrNi3Mo steel. Investigators also found evidence of inclusions and prior austenite grain size, although it was determined that neither played a role in the failure. Rather, according to test data, the failure occurred because of stress concentration (due to geometric discontinuities along the tooth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , MD , 1976 , pp. 11 – 21 . 6. Ducheyne P. , Beight J. , Cuckler J. , Evans B. , and Radin S. : “ Effect of Calcium Phosphate Coating Characteristics on Ear ly Post-Operative Bone T issue Ingrowth ,” Biomaterials , 1990 , 11 , pp. 531 – 540 10.1016/0142-9612(90...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the chemical compositions of the nondiscolored and discolored regions. This technique utilizes X-rays to determine relative concentrations of a given element in a sample. X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube in the instrument, causing the various elements in the target to fluoresce. The X-rays emitted by each...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., potassium, calcium, titanium, and iron. Sodium in the form of sodium hydroxide caused the gouging, and the attack was probably aggravated by the presence of silicon and sulfur (silicates and sulfur). Fig. 9 In situ EDS spectrum of the deposits at the base of the gouge shown in Fig. 6 before bead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... & 2 ). Pitting was scattered at the ID surfaces, but generally concentrated at the elbow sections ( Figure 3 ). Corrosion at the OD surfaces were observed to be adjacent to the areas where ID pitting corrosion had penetrated through the wall ( Figure 4 ). Erosion was observed at the OD surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., such as sulfur and phosphorus in steel, than the interdendritic regions. Consequently, the dendrite arms are stronger and, on working, do not deform and flow as readily as the matrix in which they are incorporated. Microsegregation characterizes concentrations of elements in interdendritic regions that range...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... failure may have been washed away by escaping steam. X-ray fluorescence spectra of the dust from the tube surface, showed lead, silicon, aluminum, and calcium as the predominant contaminants, with lesser concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel, copper, and titanium. Corrosion Deposits The fracture...