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cadmium elimination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was stripped from the pins, which were then baked and repeated with a dull, porous cadmium layer that allowed outward diffusion of hydrogen. The pins were baked again after deposition of the porous cadmium layer. This eliminated the problem. Electroplating Fasteners Hydrogen embrittlement 8740 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of choosing an alternative material with a lower notch sensitivity. In addition, the temperature at which this alloy is treated must be monitored to prevent coarse grain growth. As a result of this investigation and in an effort to eliminate future failures, ARL assisted in developing a cadmium brush plating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in magnesium content or excessive impurities, such as lead, tin, or cadmium. This composition problem with zinc alloys was recognized many years ago, and particular attention has been directed toward ensuring that high-purity zinc is used. This corrective measure reportedly resulted in virtual elimination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... baking of the cap screws after the cadmium plating process. To eliminate the possibility of future hydrogen embrittlement failures, the screws should be baked at approximately 190 °C (375 °F) for 24 h. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the same potential as cadmium, and it should protect stainless in the same manner as cadmium plating. The only possible explanation of the failures was hydrogen evolving at the cathode (the stainless steel bolt) and causing hydrogen embrittlement. In a laboratory test, 7075-T6 was coupled to one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... steel. The bright cadmium layer was stripped from the pins, which were then baked and replated with a dull, porous cadmium layer that allowed outward diffusion of hydrogen. The pins were baked again after deposition of the porous cadmium layer. This eliminated the problem of hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and liquid-metal embrittlement of bolts and nuts. The article explains the most commonly used protective metal coatings for ferrous metal fasteners. Zinc, cadmium, and aluminum are commonly used for such coatings. The article also illustrates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Several cases of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... indicated that the primary fracture initiated from multiple origins on both sides of a lubrication hole that extended from the outer surface to the bore of a lug in two cadmium-plated flanged bushings made of copper alloy C63000 (aluminum bronze) that were press-fitted into each bored hole in the lug...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the possible explanations for failure by eliminating those explanations that do not fit the observations. The basic steps are: Collect data Identify damage modes present Identify possible damage mechanisms Test to identify mechanisms that occurred Identify the significance of individual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract The jackscrew drive pins on a landing-gear bogie failed when the other bogie on the same side of the airplane was kneeled for tire change. The pins, made of 300M steel, were shot peened and chromium plated on the outside surface and were cadmium plated and painted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-strength steels has been somewhat limited by their susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement, the extremely detrimental effect of small defects, and high residual stresses that cannot be eliminated. Manufacturers and users are willing to struggle with the many design, fabrication and maintenance problems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... mechanism was ductile overload and that the mechanical properties of the bolts were consistent with exemplar bolts that had been supplied. After eliminating other sources of excessive load application, the most probable cause of failure was ascribed to variances between the frictional characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Anomalies such as porosity, voids, inclusions, and lack of braze filler metal (incomplete brazing) can be eliminated or minimized by implementing compatible cleaning operations before assembly and brazing. The use of fluxes or salts is also a contributor to producing flaws similar to those due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... The frame was machined from MIL-S-8949 D6ac steel billet, then heat treated to an ultimate tensile strength ( F tu ) of 1520 MPa (220 ksi) in accordance with MIL-H-6875. The machining was then shot peened in accordance with MIL-S-13165 and vacuum cadmium plated in accordance with MIL-C-8837, class 1, type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the 1800–1930 MPa (260–280 ksi) range. The part had been treated with manganese phosphate, primed and painted on both inner and outer surfaces. No sacrificial coating, such as cadmium, had been applied in an attempt to minimize the possibility of hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that are radially aligned. Fig. 1 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. Failure occurred seven days after installation on an aircraft wing structure. See also Fig. 2 . Original magnification: 5×. Courtesy of Lockheed-Georgia Company Fig. 2 Fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the mechanism, the end result is an adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the material. Fig. 1 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. Failure occurred seven days after installation on an aircraft wing structure. See also Fig. 2. 5×. Courtesy of Lockheed-Georgia...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of copper-penetration fractures. The Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad reported on an investigation that began in 1952 to determine what could be done to reduce or eliminate wrecks and hot-boxes due to defective journals. The railroad developed a journal-inspection car that used ultrasonic inspection. During...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... environment. Generally, the relative positions of metals and alloys in both emf and galvanic series are the same. An exception is the position of cadmium with respect to iron and its alloys. In the emf series, cadmium is cathodic to iron, but in the galvanic series (at least in seawater), cadmium is anodic...