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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Four cadmium-plated ASTM A193 grade B studs from a steam line connector associated with a power turbine failed unexpectedly in a nil-ductility manner. Fracture surfaces were covered with a light-colored, lustrous deposit. Optical microscope, SEM, and EDS analyses were conducted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract After less than 30 days in service, several cadmium-plated retaining rings, made of 4140 steel tubing and heat treated to 36 to 40 HRC, broke during operation that included holding components of a segmented fitting in place under a constant load. Photographic and 100x nital-etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two clevis-head self-retaining bolts used in the throttle-control linkage of a naval aircraft failed on the aircraft assembly line. Specifications required the bolts to be heat treated to a hardness of 39 to 45 HRC, followed by cleaning, cadmium electroplating, and baking to minimize...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 12 Cadmium-plated 8740 steel aircraft-wing assembly nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. The nut was not baked after electroplating to release hydrogen. (a) Overall view. 5×. (b) Fracture surface. 9×. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of typical intergranular fracture shown in box More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Cadmium-plated alloy steel self-retaining bolts that fractured because of hydrogen damage. (a) Fractured and unused intact bolt. (b) Fractured bolt; brittle fracture surface is indicated by A and B. (c) and (d) Electron fractographs of surfaces A and B, respectively, showing brittle More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 14 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 alloy steel fasteners that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. See also Fig. 15 . More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Cadmium-plated 4140 steel nuts from a military jet engine that failed by LME. (a) Fragmented and cracked nuts. (b) Typical fracture surface. (c) Electron fractograph showing brittle intergranular fracture More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. Failure occurred seven days after installation on an aircraft wing structure. See also Fig. 2. 5×. Courtesy of Lockheed-Georgia Company More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Fracture surface of failed cadmium-plated nut in Fig. 1 . (a) Macrograph of fracture surface; 15×. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the area in the box in (a) showing typical intergranular fracture; 3950×. Courtesy of Lockheed-Georgia Company More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 3 Service failure of a low-alloy steel nut by LMIE. Cadmium-plated, 4140 low-alloy steel (44 HRC) nuts were inadvertently used on bolts for clamps used to join ducts that carried hot (500 °C, or 930 °F) air from the compressor of a military jet engine. (a) The nuts were fragmented More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Failed Ti-6AI-4V shear fastener. The fasteners were cadmium plated for galvanic compatibility with the aluminum structure. (a) Photograph showing failure at the head-to-shank fillet. (b) Intergranular fracture morphology. Failure was attributed to LMIE caused by excessive temperature More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 3 Closeup of stud 3 fracture face, covered with cadmium. 3.7×. More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 7 Cracks in stud 3, filled with cadmium. EDS analyses were performed at “B”. Unetched. The white constituent is cadmium. 77×. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 12 Cadmium-plated 8740 steel aircraft-wing assembly nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. The nut was not baked after electroplating to release hydrogen. (a) Overall view. Original magnification: 5×. (b) Fracture surface. Original magnification: 9×. (c) Scanning electron micrograph More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 13 Cadmium-plated alloy steel self-retaining bolts that fractured because of hydrogen damage. (a) Fractured and unused intact bolt. (b) Fractured bolt; brittle fracture surface is indicated by A and B. (c) and (d) Electron fractographs of surfaces A and B, respectively, showing brittle More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 14 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 alloy steel fasteners that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. See also Fig. 15 . More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 16 Cadmium-plated 4140 steel nuts from a military jet engine that failed by liquid metal induced embrittlement. (a) Fragmented and cracked nuts. (b) Typical fracture surface. (c) Electron fractograph showing brittle intergranular failure More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 1 Cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel nut that failed by hydrogen embrittlement. Failure occurred seven days after installation on an aircraft wing structure. See also Fig. 2 . Original magnification: 5×. Courtesy of Lockheed-Georgia Company More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 2 Fracture surface of failed cadmium-plated nut in Fig. 1 . (a) Macrograph of fracture surface. Original magnification: 15×. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the area in the box in (a) showing typical intergranular fracture. Original magnification: 3950×. Courtesy of Lockheed-Georgia More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Failed Ti-6Al-4V shear fasteners. The fasteners were cadmium plated for galvanic compatibility with the aluminum structure. (a) Photograph showing failure at the head-to-shank fillet. (b) Intergranular fracture morphology. Failure was attributed to liquid-metal-induced embrittlement More