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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0046057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract After less than 30 days in service, several cadmium-plated retaining rings, made of 4140 steel tubing and heat treated to 36 to 40 HRC, broke during operation that included holding components of a segmented fitting in place under a constant load. Photographic and 100x nital-etched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Four cadmium-plated ASTM A193 grade B studs from a steam line connector associated with a power turbine failed unexpectedly in a nil-ductility manner. Fracture surfaces were covered with a light-colored, lustrous deposit. Optical microscope, SEM, and EDS analyses were conducted on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two clevis-head self-retaining bolts used in the throttle-control linkage of a naval aircraft failed on the aircraft assembly line. Specifications required the bolts to be heat treated to a hardness of 39 to 45 HRC, followed by cleaning, cadmium electroplating, and baking to minimize...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract During an inspection of a structure two weeks after assembly, the heads of several cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel fasteners were found to be completely separated from their respective shanks. SEM examination of the fracture surfaces revealed a brittle, intergranular fracture mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Several cases of embrittlement failure are analyzed, including liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of an aluminum alloy pipe in a natural gas plant, solid metal-induced embrittlement (SMIE) of a brass valve in an aircraft engine oil cooler, LME of a cadmium-plated steel screw from a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048626
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Cadmium-plated high-strength steel bolts were used to facilitate quick disassembly of a vehicle. One bolt was found fractured across the root of a thread after being torqued in place for one week. The bolts were made of 8735 steel heat treated to a tensile strength of 1241 to 1379 MPa...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A ring clamp (8740 (AMS 6322), steel forged and cadmium plated) used for attaching ducts to an aircraft engine became loose after three hours of service. When the clamp was removed from the engine, the hinge tabs on one clamp half were found to be broken. Analysis (visual inspection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The clapper in a 250 mm diam disk valve (made from ASTM A36 steel, stress relieved and cadmium plated) fractured at the welded joint between the clapper and a 20 mm diam support rod (also made of same material). The valve contained a stream of gas consisting of 55% H2S, 39% CO2, 5% H2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A forged, cadmium-plated electroslag remelt (ESR) 4340 steel mixer pivot support of the rotor support assembly located on an Army attack helicopter was found to be broken in two pieces during an inspection. Visual inspection of the failed part revealed significant wear on surfaces that...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...: ensuring that 100% magnetic particle inspections are conducted after bolts are tempered; using dull cadmium plate or an alternative to the electrode position process, such as vacuum cadmium plate or ion-plate or ion-plated aluminum, to mitigate the potential for delayed failures due to hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... fatigue cracks, resulting in a failure mode of corrosion fatigue. It was recommended that all of the horizontal hinge pins be inspected. Those pins determined to be satisfactory for further use should be stripped of cadmium, shot peened, and coated with cadmium to a minimum thickness of 0.0127 mm (0.0005...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A cadmium-plated 4340 Ni-Cr-Mo steel ballast elbow assembly was submitted for failure analysis to determine the element or radical present in an oxidation product found inside the elbow assembly. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis in the SEM showed that iron was the predominant species...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... temperature, and electroplated with cadmium for protection against corrosion. Each fracture showed seven or eight kidney-shaped cracks. At the origins of these cracks on the concave inner surface of the springs, crater-like depressions and beads of melted and resolidified material were found. Fracture of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... or excessive impurities, such as lead, tin, or cadmium. This composition problem with zinc alloys was recognized many years ago, and particular attention has been directed toward ensuring that high-purity zinc is used. This corrective measure reportedly resulted in virtual elimination of this type of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A cadmium-plated music-wire return spring that operated in a pneumatic cylinder designed for infinite life at a maximum stress level of 620 MPa failed after 240,000 cycles. An extremely hard and small kernel, which looked like a weld deposit, was observed at the center of the fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... compound, nickel phosphide. The use of a brazing alloy containing phosphorus was unsuitable on two counts and a quaternary alloy containing silver, copper, cadmium and zinc, such as those in group AG1 or AG2 of BS 1845 would be more suitable. However, because corrosive problems experienced in these units...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Fracture of a cadmium-plated accumulator ring forged from 4140 steel was discovered during inspection and disassembly of a hydraulic-accumulator system stored at a depot. The ring had broken into five small and two large segments. The small segments of the broken ring displayed very...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws that were part of a slide valve assembly on a regenerator line in a petrochemical plant failed during initial loading. Metallographic and XDS chemical analysis in conjunction with SEM examination of one failed and one unfailed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A heat-treated, cadmium-plated AISI 8740 steel bolt broke through the head-to-shank fillet while being handled during assembly. Fractographic and metallographic examination of the bolt traced the cause of failure to quench cracking, which occurred when the part was water cooled...