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bulk forming

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working operations and sheet-forming operations ( Ref 1 ). The general distinction here is that bulk working imposes material flow in all directions, while sheet-forming operations are typically limited to two-dimensional deformation. Metalworking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... discontinuities hot forming ingot casting metalworking defects nonferrous forging steel forging wrought metal products Introduction to Failures Related to Hot Forming Processes Wrought forms are produced by a wide variety of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... reduced in bulk from the inside and covered with a thick crumbling layer of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3-O4). This was a corrosion product resulting from the operation of the boiler. In addition, it was decarburized from the inside, and interspersed with grain boundary cracks. This form of attack is typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a slope decrease in curves of log stress versus log rupture life. Oxides and nitrides formed on the surfaces of the intercrystalline cracks that occur extensively during tertiary creep. Observed interconnection of the bulk of these cracks added substantially to strengthening against creep deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can accelerate corrosion through galvanic effects and can promote hydrogen damage. Ultrasonic testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., the asperities of the hard surface can plow into the bulk of the polymer, removing debris. These debris materials (also known as the “third body”) generally get transferred to the counterface, forming a transfer film that eventually makes the counterface appear smoother. The formation of a stable film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and can be misinterpreted as part of actual data in the chemical analysis. Surface finishes, paints, coatings, and other treatments can obscure the true chemistry of the metal and must be adequately removed to achieve appropriate results. The manufacturing or forming process can also affect how bulk...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... classification is based on the two-term model that divides wear mechanisms into interfacial and bulk or cohesive. The second is based on the perceived wear mechanism. The third classification is specific to polymers and draws the distinction based on mechanical properties of polymers. In this classification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... turbine (turbojet) engines, involves the rework and/or replacement of many components including the fuel nozzle heat shields. These heat shields, which are fabricated by press forming from annealed type 321 corrosion resistant steel (CRES) sheet, are utilized to keep hot combustion gases from affecting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the articles “ Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” “ Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” and “ Ion Chromatography ” in Materials Characterization , Volume 10 of the ASM Handbook , 2019, and in the article “ Bulk Elemental Analysis ” in the Metals Handbook Desk Edition , 2nd ed., 1998...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on certain types of casting. the surface defect termed metal wave, heat wave or laking is in this category. The lakes are areas encompassed by irregular lines or waves on flat or slightly contoured surfaces which are intended to look uniform. The position, shape and height of the waves which form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , ASM Handbook , Totten G.E. , Ed., ASM International , 2017 , p 748 – 767 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006422 • Lahoti G.D. and Pauskar P.M. , Flat, Bar, and Shape Rolling , Metalworking: Bulk Forming , Vol 14A , ASM Handbook , Semiatin S.L. , Ed., ASM International...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Babu S. and Semiatin S.L. , Die Wear , Metalworking: Bulk Forming , Vol 14A , ASM Handbook , Semiatin S.L. , Ed., ASM International , 2005 , p 62 – 83 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003976 Introduction Industrial Problem and Experimental Procedure Identification of Hot...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... decrease in curves of log stress versus log rupture life. Oxides and nitride formed on the surfaces of the intercrystalline cracks that occur extensively during tertiary creep. Observed interconnection of the bulk of these cracks added substantially to strengthening against creep deformation in the late...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... structure, which indicates that it was formed during the original impeller casting process. (a)∼18.6×. (b)∼310× Fig. 7 Photomicrograph showing a typical shrinkage cavity in the damaged impeller. Etched in Vilella's reagent. 31× Fig. 8 Photomicrograph showing a typical example of some...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... constituted the bulk of the corrosion deposit, yielded the following results: The black deposit was identified as primarily copper sulfide, with zinc and aluminum sulfides also present. The green deposit was also analyzed and identified as copper chloride. Copper, chlorine, zinc, and aluminum were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract After 10 to 20 months of service, the carbon steel hoppers on three trucks used to transport bulk ammonium nitrate prills developed extensive cracking in the upper walls. The prills were discharged from the steel hoppers using air superchargers that generated an unloading pressure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-up view of the typical MT indications observed on the disc side surfaces Fig. 3 The typical bulk microstructure observed in the disc is shown at two different magnifications. The microstructure consists of tempered martensite and bainite. Fig. 4 These photomicrographs show typical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... handling wavelength-dispersive spectrometry CHEMICAL ANALYSIS is often a useful tool for failure analysis. There are two main categories of chemical analysis that are often used by failure analysts: Bulk composition evaluation: often performed in order to determine whether the correct alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... parameter inlet to prevent HNO3 condensation outside the inlet and replacement of the floating skirt with virgin material (i.e., material unaffected by weld repairs). Selected References Selected References • Forms of Corrosion , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...