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bulk forming

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... variety of metalworking operations that can be roughly divided into bulk-working operations and sheet-forming operations ( Ref 1 ). The general distinction here is that bulk working imposes material flow in all directions, while sheet-forming operations are typically limited to two-dimensional deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was strongly reduced in bulk from the inside and covered with a thick crumbling layer of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3-O4). This was a corrosion product resulting from the operation of the boiler. In addition, it was decarburized from the inside, and interspersed with grain boundary cracks. This form of attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Forming Processes , Metalworking: Bulk Forming , Vol 14A , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2005 22. Baker R.G. and Nutting J. , J. Iron Steel Inst. , Vol 192 , 1959 , p 257 – 268 23. Hickey J.J. and Bulloch J.H. , Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping , Vol 49...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... , ASM Handbook , Totten G.E. , Ed., ASM International , 2017 , p 748 – 767 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006422 • Lahoti G.D. and Pauskar P.M. , Flat, Bar, and Shape Rolling , Metalworking: Bulk Forming , Vol 14A , ASM Handbook , Semiatin S.L. , Ed., ASM International...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Handbook , Becker W.T. and Shipley R.J. , Ed., ASM International , 1986 , p 563 – 585 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814 • Shivpuri R. , Babu S. and Semiatin S.L. , Die Wear , Metalworking: Bulk Forming , Vol 14A , ASM Handbook , Semiatin S.L. , Ed., ASM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for specific materials or components. Often provided with raw materials and formed parts are ladle analyses from the foundry/mill or certificates of conformance (CoC) indicating the composition of the materials from an independent test house. Bulk chemical analysis during a failure investigation can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molecules. The other important parameter to consider in interfacial wear is the roughness of the counterface. For rough and hard counterfaces, the wear mode is generally that of bulk or cohesive wear. Interfacial wear is initiated only when the counterface is smooth enough to form interfacial junctions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Waterwall tube failure samples removed from a coal- and oil-fired boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the articles “ Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” “ Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy ,” and “ Ion Chromatography ” in Materials Characterization , Volume 10 of the ASM Handbook , 2019, and in the article “ Bulk Elemental Analysis ” in the Metals Handbook Desk Edition , 2nd ed., 1998...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... decrease in curves of log stress versus log rupture life. Oxides and nitride formed on the surfaces of the intercrystalline cracks that occur extensively during tertiary creep. Observed interconnection of the bulk of these cracks added substantially to strengthening against creep deformation in the late...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by Spot Test , STP 550, ASTM , 1974 Economy Methods Bulk Composition Verification Referee Methods Alternatives to Economy and Referee Methods Procuring a Chemical Analysis Specimen Handling Information<xref rid="a0003529-fn1" ref-type="fn">[1]</xref> Wavelength-Dispersive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surfaces which are intended to look uniform. The position, shape and height of the waves which form the periphery of the laked area vary from casting to casting in a single production run. The waves are only visible by eye under certain angles of illumination. wave heights of 1 to 30 µm have been reported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...-P-408 gas turbine (turbojet) engines, involves the rework and/or replacement of many components including the fuel nozzle heat shields. These heat shields, which are fabricated by press forming from annealed type 321 corrosion resistant steel (CRES) sheet, are utilized to keep hot combustion gases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photographically documented ( Fig. 5 ). The surfaces exhibited a dendritic structure, which indicated that the defects were formed during the original impeller casting process. Fig. 5 shows a low-magnification view of the shrinkage void surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of indentation is operator dependent and results in variation Microindentation hardness testing Vickers hardness Hardness Result does not always correlate to bulk material hardness Values vary with applied loads Requires a polished surface Knoop hardness Hardness Result does not always correlate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... different magnifications. The microstructure consists of tempered martensite and bainite. Fig. 3 The typical bulk microstructure observed in the disc is shown at two different magnifications. The microstructure consists of tempered martensite and bainite. Crack Origins/Paths Samples...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., reaches approximately 3% ( Table 4 ). This is 30 times the average bulk carbon content. It can be confirmed from the Auger peak shape that the carbon exists in the form of carbide. Therefore, it is assumed that a thin carbide film forms at the grain boundary during service. The chromium and carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was not known; bulk chemical analysis had simply shown that iron was a major component. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify the deposits. In the first instance, the deposit was found to be debris that was left in the reheater tubes during boiler modification and swept...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0091598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract After 10 to 20 months of service, the carbon steel hoppers on three trucks used to transport bulk ammonium nitrate prills developed extensive cracking in the upper walls. The prills were discharged from the steel hoppers using air superchargers that generated an unloading...