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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... supported the conclusion that the iron shot increased stresses in the choke zone of the barrel, causing it to deform. Variations in the amount of bulging were attributed to a lack of uniformity in wall thickness. Recommendations included making the barrel from steel with a higher yield strength, making...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract After about a year of uninterrupted service, one of the blow pipes on a blast furnace developed a bulge measuring 300 x 150 x 12 mm. The conical shaped section was removed from the furnace and examined to determine why it failed. The investigation consisted of visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The rear wall tube section of a boiler that had been in service for approximately 38 years was removed and examined. Visual examination of the tube revealed a small bulge with a through-wall crack. Metallography showed that the microstructure of the bulged area consisted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract When bulging occurred in mortar tubes made of British I steel during elevated-temperature test firing, a test program was formulated to evaluate the high-temperature properties (at 540 to 650 deg C, or 1000 to 1200 deg F) of the British I steel and of several alternative...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Two steam-methane reformer furnaces were subjected to short-time heat excursions because of a power outage, which resulted in creep bulging in the Incoloy 800 outlet pigtails, requiring complete replacement. Each furnace had three cells, consisting of 112 vertical tubes per...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... from different sections (ruptured area, slightly bulged but nonruptured area and visually sound metal) were inspected. The presence of pinhead-size intergranular fissures throughout the cross sections of the latter two samples was observed. An ultrasonic attenuation method was employed to investigate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A carbon steel furnace tube which should have given good service for ten years ruptured after one year. The tube showed obvious swelling at the point of rupture, and the bulged surface of the tube was oxidized at a temperature far above the design temperature. There was little...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Following the fusing of one of the copper leads in the choke circuit of an electric welder, a piece of the affected lead was obtained for examination. The sample had large internal cavities and surface bulges. It is remarkable that a wire containing defects of the magnitude...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Two identical “D” tube package boilers, installed at separate plants, experienced a number of tube ruptures after relatively short operating times. The tubes, which are joined by membranes, experienced localized bulging and circumferential cracking along the fireside crown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A pressure vessel failed causing an external fire on a nine-story coke gasifier in a refinery power plant. An investigation revealed that the failure began as cracking in the gasifier internals, which led to bulging and stress rupture of the vessel shell, and the escape of hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0090988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... to typical service. The material and mechanical properties of the cylinder pipe were unknown. Fig. 1 Failure of a jack cylinder. (a) Cylinder that split during testing. Substantial bulging is apparent at the failure location. (b) Opened crack surfaces from the cylinder in (a). Both the inside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... during the accident. **Measurements of the flattened tubular portion Dimensional measurements made on the flattened region showed that this portion had bulged to a maximum diameter of about 86 mm (3.4 in.) ( Fig. 3 ). Diameter and thickness measurements were also carried out on the lower tubular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... tubes were ruptured, and seven other coils had bulges and longitudinal cracks, all near the bottom manifold ( Figure 1 ). Visual inspection revealed that the other heater had similar bulges and cracking, [ 2 ]. It was concluded that the failures were due to localized corrosion of the inside walls...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... be categorized as microcracks, macrocracks, diametral growth, ovality, fish scaling, and premature bursting. The flow forming process occasionally introduces waviness or bulges on the outer-face of tubes. Such defects occur only under certain working conditions. This phenomenon is called “plastic flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... out of the pipe wall. This type of failure is known as a window fracture. Figure 2 is a close-up view of the window. Note that the fracture was brittle in nature, with very little bulging of the pipe wall adjacent to the window. The entire fracture surface was covered with scale, which precluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of bulging or secondary cracking. No evidence of significant ash build-up was observed on the outer diameter surface. However, an iron oxide scale layer approximately 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) thick was observed under a very thin layer of brownish deposit on the outer diameter surface. Fig. 1 The external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the circumference. A few leaks were also detected in the base metal near the weld joining a nozzle to the shell. Reddish brown corrosion products were also seen on the tank surface at a location approximately 30 mm (1.2 in.) from one of the nozzle welds. A slight bulge (a few millimeters in height) was seen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... When Figs. 10(a,b,c) are examined closely, it is apparent that there is a radial displacement of material on each side of the partial thickness crack. Fig. 11 , also on surface A, does not show any cracking but does show two other interesting features. There is a radial bulging of material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... with corrosion of the wire reinforcement. Unless there is extensive corrosion and the resultant corrosion product is causing bulging of the outer covering of the hose, the only other visible sign may be some rust staining of the outer covering (especially if it incorporates a textile braid). Usually by the time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and location of the anomaly within the laminate. One additional observation was that the first two coating layers often exhibited bulging and cracking at the edges of fiber bundles that contained the anomalous resin features ( Figure 5 ). Fig. 4 FTIR analysis of resin extracted from the exterior ply...