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bridge design

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article provides the framework for the investigation of bridge failures. It explains the types of bridge loading and presents the regulatory provisions for bridges. Some bridge failures in the U.S. that resulted in significant changes in bridge manufacturing, design, regulation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... temperature was 35 F (1.6 C). Completion of the bridge was delayed one year. Why did the junction piece fail in a brittle manner? Our investigation showed that the original design of the failed component called for an angle of high geometric stress concentration (90° with no radius) in a region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... This bridge is almost one hundred years old, having been opened in the early 1890s when the major traffic was that of street railway vehicles. It consists of four lanes, two in either direction, plus sidewalks along either side. The original design was such as to support the heavy street railway car traffic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the microstructure, chemistry and hardness of the steel and measuring the dynamic toughness and fatigue crack growth rates in the banded region. By noting these differences, bridge engineers can re-evaluate existing designs and modify current bridge inspection procedures. The steel used in the construction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Locked coil wire ropes, by virtue of their unique design and construction, have specialized applications in aerial ropeways, mine hoist installations, suspension bridge cables, and so forth. In such specialty ropes, the outer layer is constructed of Z-profile wires that provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... to 8,260 tph. Under this total loading, which was only slightly above the regular operating condition, a poorly designed and fabricated transition joint in the west lower chord failed, thereby overloading other key structural members and causing the entire truss to collapse. Another contributing cause...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 12. Fisher J.W. , Bridge Fatigue Guide—Design and Details , Publication T112-11/77, American Institute of Steel Construction , Chicago , 1977 13. Engineers Investigate Cracked El , Eng. News Rec. , Vol 200 ( No. 3 ), Jan 19 , 1979 14. Fisher J.W. , Hanson J.M...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0089530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A sand-cast steel eye connector used to link together two 54,430 kg capacity floating-bridge pontoons failed prematurely in service. The pontoons were coupled by upper and lower eye and clevis connectors that were pinned together. The eye connector was found to be cast from low-alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the land with a generous machined fillet caused the weld to bridge a large gap. Such a welding design is unsatisfactory. How Failure Could Have Been Prevented Proper preheat during welding could have prevented this failure. Proper preheat is necessary when AISI 4140 steel is welded. The land...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract During construction of a river bridge with 80 twisted cables, one or more fractures were found in each of 21 wires of 18 cables before assembly. All were located at the outside wrapping whose Z-profile wires were galvanically zinc-coated. It was suspected that hydrogen played a role...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... survey, potential and corrosion mapping, concrete chemistry, and concrete physical properties. The major cause of corrosion damage appears to have been the presence of both pre-existing and environmentally-delivered chlorides in the concrete. Bridges Cements Chlorides Support beams Steel beam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the bridge was designed, the plans specified ASTM A517 grade F steel in the tension flanges of the trapezoidal box girders. When the contract was let, the steel producer convinced all parties that A517 grade H would be a satisfactory substitute, even though grade H has a leaner chemistry and is limited...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... codes for storage tanks developed Consideration given to causes for brittle fracture Tacoma Bridge Failure ( Ref 6 , 7 1940 Aerodynamic instability and failure caused by wind vortices and bridge design Sophisticated analytical models developed for resonance Bridge design changed to account...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to incorporate a margin or factor of safety. However, after a design is realized and evolves, the actual margin may not be carefully reevaluated. That is, the actual factor of safety may be much less than anticipated. A good example of this concept was the August 2007 collapse of the Interstate 35W bridge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Consideration given to causes for brittle fracture Tacoma bridge failure ( Ref 6 , 7 ) 1940 Aerodynamic instability and failure caused by wind vortices and bridge design Sophisticated analytical models developed for resonance Bridge design changed to account for aerodynamic conditions World War II...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... often be built and tested as prototypes before designs are finalized. While not minimizing the importance of the mechanical engineer’s weldments, the failure of a single weldment will rarely have the same consequences as the failure of a structure, such as a bridge. Because structural failures often...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms and common causes of failure of metal components in lifting equipment in the following three categories: cranes and bridges, particularly those for outdoor and other low-temperature service; attachments used for direct lifting, such as hooks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... equipment in three categories: cranes and bridges, attachments used for direct lifting, and built-in members of lifting equipment. It first reviews the mechanisms, origins, and investigation of failures. Then the article describes the materials used for lifting equipment, followed by a section explaining...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... spectra are used to determine actual stresses and displacements at locations and frequencies of concern. The analysis is performed on large structures such as buildings and bridges. These analyses are also required as part of the design qualification of nuclear power plants. Similar types of dynamic...