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bonding energy

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are much weaker than primary bonds, as indicated in Table 1 , which accounts for the low melting temperatures, low stiffness, and low strength exhibited by many thermoplastic polymers. Thermoplastics can be melted by heating and will resolidify when cooled. Bond energies for various materials Table 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
..., and the vibrational energy of a group of atoms is associated with a given frequency. In FTIR, a continuous beam of electromagnetic radiation is passed through or reflected off the surface of the sample, causing individual molecular bonds and groups of bonds to vibrate at characteristic frequencies and absorb infrared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Chemical compositions of bond-coat layer, base, and filler metal Table 1 Chemical compositions of bond-coat layer, base, and filler metal Chemical Composition, wt.% Co Cr Ni W Ta C Zr Fe Ti Al Base metal ECY768 54.32 23.64 10.17 6.83 3.70 0.61 0.03 0.35 0.25...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., with no significant differences between the affected and unaffected segments. The cladding hardnesses in both segments were similar, 88 to 91 HRB. The hardness of the carbon steel was 82 HRB. Both segments exhibited a nickel-rich intermediate bond layer, 25 mm thick. The austenitic grain size was finer next...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Silver solid-state bonded components containing uranium failed under zero or low applied load several years after manufacture. The final operation in their manufacture was a proof loading that applied a sustained tensile stress to the bond, which all components passed. The components...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001906
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... testing, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. It was determined that the failures were due to forging defects. Both forging laps and seams acted as stress concentrators when the lugs were loaded during proof testing. Bombs (weapons) Suspension lugs Forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An E-Brite /Ferralium explosively bonded tube sheet in a nitric acid condenser was removed from service because of corrosion. Visual and metallographic examination of tube sheet samples revealed severe cracking in the heat-affected zone between the outer tubes and the weld joining...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... plastic deformation that would induce residual stresses or damage the pipe. One of the failure problems unique to gas pipelines was the potential length of a failure. Because the pressurized gas contains an enormous amount of stored energy and because the energy-release rate upon rupture is often slow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a phosphorus-rich zone along the solder interface. The phosphorus-rich layer is typical of an undesirable condition on circuit boards called black pad, which is extremely damaging to solderability. Fig. 13 Energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) line scan on a polished cross at the bond interface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... material was peeled off by making a cut at each hole through which the elastomer passed. This design for bonding is intended to prevent the encapsulating material from separating. The smaller section of the broken swing was left as-received. Moreover, only a small corner was cut from the mating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... To minimize this charging phenomenon, low-energy electrons or a combination of electron and ion floods ( Ref 8 ) may be added to the sample surface. All peaks are then referenced to a peak of known energy, such as carbon 1s peak for C-H bonding, because hydrocarbons are present on most surfaces. This charge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... a laminated construction. Adhesive bonding held the laminations together, and a plastic coating covered the outside surfaces. Bonded laminated sheets are known to be stronger than monolithic, or one-layered, sheets of the same thickness. Tray 1, submitted as evidence of the accident, is shown in Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Acoustic or inductive energy is applied to a part, and cracks heat up more than surrounding regions. Detection of surface-breaking cracks Acoustic energy is mode- and shape-sensitive so is nonuniform in heating effect. Also no crack depth information Same as thermal/IR above Mostly metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy) Understanding the various analytical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... beam and metal powder for melting and bonding Other metal AM methods Ultrasonic consolidation (sheet lamination) Uses ultrasonic energy to consolidate layers of sheet metal and make parts Binder jetting and sintering Printing in a powder bed, curing in a low-temperature oven...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.32 Balance 21.12 0.42 0.34 0.08 0.48 The characteristics of utilized explosive Table 2 The characteristics of utilized explosive Chemical composition, wt.% Density, g/cm 3 Average detonation velocity, m/s Gurney energy, kJ/kg Ammonium nitrate (84%) + gasoline (6%) + TNT...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the resistor termination. Note the absence of evidence of any type of fracture or tearing on the surface. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrographic (EDS) analysis was performed on the delaminated surface and determined the presence of zirconium, silver, silicon, lead, manganese, magnesium, and aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fracture. The presence of brittle fracture is a concern, because catastrophic brittle fracture occurs due to the elastic stress that is present and usually propagates at high speed, sometimes with little associated absorbed energy. Fracture occurring in a brittle manner cannot be anticipated by the onset...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Sufficient thermal energy can be input to a polymeric material to break the covalent chemical bonds that hold polymer molecules together. This bond breakage (chain scission), if it occurs in the polymer backbone, will reduce molecular weight. Chain scission of side chain branches may also alter the polymer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the forging surface. Once overlap occurred in the forgings, the oxides would evolve. Generally, the bonding strength in the overlap regions was less than in the matrix material. The combination of the overlap defect and bolt preload would consequently result in rupture of the splint. The cracks initiated from...