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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be carried out at the scene and must be performed on selected samples taken from the failed equipment. Therefore, the methods used to obtain samples for laboratory examination are of utmost importance. For example, if the failure involves rupture of one or more boiler or superheater tubes, there is a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The phenomenon of on-load corrosion is directly associated with the production of magnetite on the water-side surface of boiler tubes. On-load corrosion may first be manifested by the sudden, violent rupture of a boiler tube, such failures being found to occur predominantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... suggests that the intergranular path of caustic cracks in steam boilers may be due largely to the presence, probably on a submicroscopic scale, of carbides at the grain boundaries, thus rendering these regions susceptible to preferential attack. It is known that some steels are more liable to develop...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Rivets from the longitudinal seam of the terminal shell ring of a 12 year old Lancashire boiler broke off easily during examination. Cleavage fractures indicated a brittle material. Microstructure of a sectioned rivet head was typical of a normal rimming steel except...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A seamless hot-drawn boiler tube NW 300 of 318 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of steel 15Mo3 was bent with sand filling after preheating allegedly to 1000 deg C. In the process it had cracked repeatedly in the drawn fiber. The composition corresponded to specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract During the inspection of a boiler containing cracks at the superheater header connection, cracking also was detected within the main steam drum. This was fabricated from a Mn-Mo-V low-alloy steel. It operated with water and saturated steam at approximately 335 deg C. Cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract One tube in a watertube boiler developed leakage from a perforation. The external surface was covered with a dark deposit indicative of local fusion. Perforation resulted from the development of a crack from the internal surface. Microscopic examination revealed extensive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A backwell tube situated in the combustion chamber of a 100 atm boiler, which had been in service for many years, failed. The temperature of the saturated steam was about 300 deg C. Two pipe sections with attacked areas in the circumferential welding joint were examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract On attempting to manipulate or bend a boiler tube some 22 ft. long, sudden failure occurred at what appeared to be a butt weld in the tube. Externally, the weld reinforcement had been ground flush and the entire tube surface painted. Internally, the appearance and width of the heated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Several ruptures took place in the front wall tubes of a water tube boiler. Some rupture samples showed ductile failure while others showed brittle failure. Specimens taken from the rupture where a thick edge had been produced, i.e., with little evidence of prior plastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... Abstract Abstract A water tube boiler with two headers and 15.5 atm working pressure became leaky in the lower part due to the formation of cracks in the rivet-hole edges. The boiler plate of 20 mm thickness was a rimming steel with 0.05% C, traces of Si, 0.38% Mn, 0.027% P, 0.035% S, and 0.08% Cu...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (black jagged lines near center) aligned in directon of rolling in a ferrite matrix. 4% nital etch. 308×. Abstract Abstract A stud that was part of a man hole cover on an old steam boiler broke when it was dropped. The boiler was more than 100 years old, but still performed satisfactorily when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A type 304 stainless steel tube that failed in a boiler stack economizer was analyzed to determine the cause. The investigation consisted of visual, SEM/EDS, and metallographic analysis. Several degradation mechanisms appeared to be at work, including pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A 150 cm ID boiler drum made form ASTM A515, grade 70, steel failed during final hydrotesting at a pressure of approximately 26 MPa. Brittle fractures were revealed in between two SA-106C nozzles and remainder was found to involve tearing. Short, flat segments of fracture area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract This paper reviews several fatigue failures from the waterwall, superheater, and economizer portions of the boiler, their causes and how they were mitigated and monitored. Some cases required simple field modifications by cutting or welding, repair of existing controls...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the severe fissuring surrounding the crack. The arrows point to a large copper deposit. The outside diameter is at the top, the inside diameter at the bottom. Etched in nital. 19.25× Abstract Abstract The rear wall tube section of a boiler that had been in service for approximately 38 years...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... shrinkage cavities/casting voids observed in the damaged impeller. Etched in Vilella's reagent. 31× Fig. 9 Closeup views of a repair weld covering a casting void or shrinkage cavity. Etched in Vilella's reagent. (a) ∼1.09×. (b)∼6.2× Fig. 1 As-received main boiler feed pump impeller...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A pipe in the lateral wall of a boiler powering an aircraft carrier flat-top boat failed during a test at sea. The pipe was made from ASTM 192 steel, an adequate material for the application. Microstructural analysis along with equipment operating records provided valuable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The failure of a boiler operating at 540 °C and 9.4 MPa was investigated by examining material samples from the near-failure region and by thermodynamic analysis. A scanning Auger microprobe, SEM, and commercial thermodynamic software codes were used in the investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Waterwall tube failure samples removed from a coal- and oil-fired boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can accelerate...