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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... was produced by stress corrosion as the combined result of: residual forming and service stresses; the concentration of tensile stress at outer square corners of the pierced slots; and preferential corrosive attack along the grain boundaries as a result of high humidity and occasional condensation of moisture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... and not simply peened. Not only are the stress-raising effects of “blasting” negligible by virtue of the smallness of the indentations, but there is a compensatory factor introduced by the residual surface compression that occurs and, given the optimum conditions, it may actually improve the fatigue strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... 3 . Where annealing is not possible the residual tensile stresses in the surface can be converted to compressive stresses by shot blasting. This often suffices to protect the still stressed underlying regions from stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, shot blasting is preferred if slag removal from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article addresses the effects of damage to equipment and structures due to explosions (blast), fire, and heat as well as the methodologies that are used by investigating teams to assess the damage and remaining life of the equipment. It discusses the steps involved in preliminary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that had originally been extruded as a 65-cm (26-in.) diam, 75-mm (3-in.) thick pipe section. The material had been bright dipped, sand blasted, dye penetrant inspected, and passivated by the manufacturer. A spare cross from a sister power station was examined and found to have similar indications. Both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... clearance, joining position Each of these topics influences wetting and spreading behavior, joint mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and residual-stress levels. For example, the properties of brazed joints in copper alloys can be degraded if low-melting elements, such as lead, tellurium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the metal of the three cracked components. Bend tests verified the conclusion that the most likely mechanism of delayed quench cracking was isothermal transformation of retained austenite to martensite under the influence of residual quenching stresses. Recommendations included modifying the quenching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... showing deformation due to applied moment Testing Procedures and Results Nondestructive Evaluation Dye Penetrant Testing All system components were abrasively blasted with ground walnut shells prior to inspection and selection of specimens. The intent was to provide a clean test surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... rather than a jagged or deformed shape. The residue on the filter cartridge was brown, and when viewed under a low-power microscope, particles of sand, paint, or plastic, fibers from the cartridge, brass, and steel could be identified. Application of a magnet to the sample showed that it contained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of residual stresses can go a long way toward eliminating problems too. Sometimes minor changes or additions to the environment can help. Finally, proper design and operation to avoid such things as splash zones and wet/dry concentration also are important. Stress-corrosion cracking is a dangerous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the effects of various material- and process-related parameters on residual stress, distortion control, cracking, and microstructure/property relationships as they relate to various types of failure. It discusses phase transformations that occur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... loading or single overload, as well as the characteristic fracture surfaces produced by these types of behavior, must be clearly understood for proper analysis of shaft fractures. Stresses are the internal response of a material to external loads or forces. Stresses can also be residual in a material from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as one of the first comprehensive studies into the cause of season cracking, Moore, Beckinsale, and Mallinson concluded in their 1921 paper, “The Season Cracking of Brass and Other Copper Alloys,” that “some agency additional to the presence of initial (residual) stress appears to be necessary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... when a propellant burns uncontrollably in the gun chamber or a projectile explodes before emerging from the gun tube. Such an event will usually destroy the weapon and could result in a loss of life if the gun crew is exposed to the blast and fragments. Although they rarely occur in service, a number...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of corrosion products or metal surfaces. For example, silver nitrate tests may be performed on residues clinging to a pitted stainless steel surface to confirm the presence of chloride ions—a common cause of pitting. Wet chemical methods are often supplemented by the use of x-ray diffraction or electron probe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... assessments, corrosion assessments, and blast, fire, and heat damage assessments. blast assessment brittle fracture assessment corrosion assessment elevated temperature life assessment failure prevention fatigue life assessment fire assessment fitness-for-service life assessment heat damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or decarburization Grinding stresses Localized stresses If abusive, localized martensitic microstructures Surface tensile stress, with subsurface compressive component Shot and grit blasting Localized surface stresses Very shallow and compressive surface stresses Subsurface tensile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... many forced power outages, considerably affecting the generation capacity of power plants and reducing plant productivity. The blasts are caused primarily by corrosion, stress ruptures, inadequate heat treatment, and welding defects [ 1 – 3 ]. Tube corrosion can be classified into two major types...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of pressure vessels, welding problems, such as brittle cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), often result from the use of steels containing excessive amounts of residual elements that increase hardenability and susceptibility to cracking. Such steels are sometimes produced inadvertently when low-carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., designing free-flow areas to promote uniform flow and optimum fluid velocities, using solid nonabsorbent gaskets, minimizing tensile and residual stresses in exchanger components, designing for desired startups and shutdowns, and so on Proper selection of construction metals Use of surface coatings...