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billets

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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 7 Variation of die life cycles (number of billets extruded) with temperature ( a ) and strain rate ( b ) More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 8 Variation of die life cycles (number of billets extruded) with die bearing length ( a ) and die fillet radius ( b ) More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 9 Variation of die life cycles (number of billets extruded) with extrusion ratio ( R ) based on failure data of 50 dies collected from extrusion industry. Die life corresponding to R = 25 is shown by dashed line More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The large steel ring produced for a nuclear application from a billet of 8822 steel was inspected. The large billet was first forged into a doughnut preform in a large press, and then formed into the ring by ring rolling. A straight-beam ultrasonic inspection was instituted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A recurring piston shaft failure problem on the billet-loading tray of an extrusion press was investigated. Two shafts fractured within a period of 10 days. The shaft was machined from normalized EN3 (AISI C1022) steel stock without further treatment. Visual, microstructural, chemical...
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Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 1 Schematic side view of billet-loading tray, shaft, and air cylinder. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-6063 billet material. They were examined to identify critical fatigue failure locations, determine corresponding stresses and strains, and uncover correlations with process parameters, design features, and life cycle data. The fatigue damage models are based on Morrow’s stress and strain-life models...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A resistance-welded chain link made from 16 mm diam 4615 steel failed while lowering a 9070 kg load of billets into a rail car after being in service for 13 months. Beach marks, typical of fatigue were found to have originated at the inside of the link which broke at the weld. Cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract Several thousands of new 16 mm diam alloy steel sling chains used for handling billets failed by chain-link fractures. No failures were found to have occurred before delivery of the new chains. It was observed that the links had broken at the weld. It was found that all failures had...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Large rolled ring that was ultrasonically inspected as a 1.7 m (68 in.) diam billet and as a rolled ring More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 40(a) Fractured section of an AISI W2 die insert that cracked during rehardening. The horizontal arrow shows the origin of the failure, which corresponds to the center of the billet used to make the insert. 0.3× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 40 (a) Fractured section of an AISI W2 die insert that cracked during rehardening. The horizontal arrow shows the origin of the failure, which corresponds to the center of the billet used to make the insert. Original magnification: 0.3×. (b) Disk that was cut through the origin More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Connecting end of forged rod, with banded structure from excessive segregation in the billet (Example 2). (a) Rod end showing locations of fractures at rough-ground areas at the parting line; in view A-A, dashed lines denote a rough-ground area, arrow points to a liquid-penetrant More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Connecting end of forged rod, with banded structure from excessive segregation in the billet (Example 2). (a) Rod end showing locations of fractures at rough-ground areas at the parting line; in view A-A, dashed lines denote a rough-ground area, arrow points to a liquid-penetrant More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in wrought products can be traced back to the pouring and solidification of hot metal during production of ingots. For most bulk-forming operations, the starting material is a bar, billet, or flat initially produced from ingots or, in some cases, made from the product of a continuous casting operation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contained herein demonstrate that steelmakers and ingot-to-billet hot-work converters were not responsible for this problem. The analysis demonstrated that high temperature forging preheat was responsible. Steel Quality Product Check of Failed Crankshafts Crankshaft steels are made to AMS 6414 steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Fig. 1 Connecting end of forged rod, with banded structure from excessive segregation in the billet (Example 2). (a) Rod end showing locations of fractures at rough-ground areas at the parting line; in view A-A, dashed lines denote a rough-ground area, arrow points to a liquid-penetrant indication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Decarburization of the crack surfaces and oxides in the root of the crack indicated that the seam had been present before the shaft was heat treated and are characteristic of seams produced during the manufacture of steel billets, bars, rods, and wires. The average hardness across the tooth surface was 60 HRC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the Ingot Many flaws in wrought products can be traced back to the pouring and solidification of hot metal in molds during production of ingot. Except for forged powder metal components, the starting material in bulk working is a slab, ingot, billet, and so forth produced by casting into stationary...