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billets

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0059924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The large steel ring produced for a nuclear application from a billet of 8822 steel was inspected. The large billet was first forged into a doughnut preform in a large press, and then formed into the ring by ring rolling. A straight-beam ultrasonic inspection was instituted and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... was there any indication of a pre-existing crack or major discontinuity at the point of origin. A sulfur print suggested the hook had been forged from a billet cogged down from an ingot of semi-killed steel. Failure of this hook was attributed to strain-age embrittlement of the material at the surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A resistance-welded chain link made from 16 mm diam 4615 steel failed while lowering a 9070 kg load of billets into a rail car after being in service for 13 months. Beach marks, typical of fatigue were found to have originated at the inside of the link which broke at the weld. Cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract Several thousands of new 16 mm diam alloy steel sling chains used for handling billets failed by chain-link fractures. No failures were found to have occurred before delivery of the new chains. It was observed that the links had broken at the weld. It was found that all failures had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-6063 billet material. They were examined to identify critical fatigue failure locations, determine corresponding stresses and strains, and uncover correlations with process parameters, design features, and life cycle data. The fatigue damage models are based on Morrow’s stress and strain-life models...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A recurring piston shaft failure problem on the billet-loading tray of an extrusion press was investigated. Two shafts fractured within a period of 10 days. The shaft was machined from normalized EN3 (AISI C1022) steel stock without further treatment. Visual, microstructural, chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contents of the specified Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) 6414 crankshaft steels were originally suspected as a root cause of this problem, results of the failure analyses and subsequent forging studies contained herein demonstrate that steelmakers and ingot-to-billet hot-work converters were not...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... fracture. Fig. 1 Connecting end of forged rod, with banded structure from excessive segregation in the billet (Example 2). (a) Rod end showing locations of fractures at rough-ground areas at the parting line; in view A-A, dashed lines denote a rough-ground area, arrow points to a liquid-penetrant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... crack surfaces and oxides in the root of the crack indicated that the seam had been present before the shaft was heat treated and are characteristic of seams produced during the manufacture of steel billets, bars, rods, and wires. The average hardness across the tooth surface was 60 HRC, which was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... existed in the original billet from which the wire was drawn and confirmed that they could not have originated as a fault incidental to the drawing operation, e.g. “cupping.” It is rather remarkable that a wire containing defects of the magnitude present in this case could have been drawn without failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... billet stock and was reported to have been solution heat treated at 1040 ± 14 °C (1900 ± 25 °F) for 30 min and either air quenched or oil quenched to room temperature. Following rough machining and magnetic-particle, liquid penetrant, and ultrasonic inspection, the stem was reportedly aged at a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... ( Fig. 6 ). This also remained completely open in the second bolt. It can be seen already from the macroetching that the head pieces have been machined from the billets or plate in such a way that the fiber runs transversely to the direction of principal stress. Toughness is thus lowered considerably...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Except for forged powder metal components, the starting material in bulk working is a slab, ingot, billet, and so forth produced by casting into stationary molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... present instance, however, brittle failure took place, this being initiated at a surface fissure which was one of several present at the intrados of the hook. These fissures were in the nature of rokes or laps that may develop either during the rolling of the billet from which the hook was made or during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... single ingot. The top of an ingot may have a central shrinkage pipe that is usually removed when the hollow billets, from which the pressure tubes are extruded, are machined. If some pipe remains, it is incorporated into the final tube. Only tubes made from billets from the top of ingots are affected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... specifications for an earlier fatigue enhancement required the installation of titanium interference-fit fasteners. Fig. 2 Fluorescent magnetic particle display of cracks in a D6ac steel frame flange on a fighter aircraft. The frame was machined from MIL-S-8949 D6ac steel billet, then heat treated to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... forging the steering arm required repeated hits of the forging billet using a series of three separate die cavities. The arm was forged into a U-shape in the second die cavity, during which there was a distinct possibility of entrapping surface oxide scale in the region of the inner bend radius of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-die forging is one method for producing near-net-shape parts. A steel billet is heated to forging temperature (1100 to 1260 °C, or 2000 to 2300 °F) and placed into successive performs in the bottom impression of the die. The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... axial length after partial cold working; thus the forging tool was restricted in working to approximately one-third of the length of the end bell by tilting the mandrel. “The program consists of seven steps: The ingot is cogged into a billet in a number of reheats, forging being carried out...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... development of techniques used in the preparation of metallographic specimens has been previously discussed in detail. 6 Due to the many corrosion sites and the size of the Mk-31A billet, a preliminary sectioning was performed. The billet was cut into four ring sections approximately two inches in length to...