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beryllium-aluminum alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The fourth was severely hammered. It was concluded that the high temperatures developed in this engine created an environment too severe for 357 aluminum. Surfaces were so hot that the low-melting constituent melted. Then, the alloy oxidized rapidly to form Al2O3, an abrasive which further aggravated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... manifestation of a subsequently widespread problem. The strut housings were forged from aluminium alloy 7079, heat treated to the T6 temper, shot peened and anodized in sulphuric acid. Fig. 4 a: Failed shock strut assembly: (A) indicates the eye-bolt with beryllium copper bushing and (B) the eye-bolt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on the base plate surface of impeller 1 were analyzed in situ using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), which can normally detect elements of atomic number 13 (aluminum) and above at concentrations as low as 0.3 to 0.5 wt%, whereas fluorine, sodium, and magnesium are detectable at somewhat higher...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... composition of the sand-cast component was identified via optical emission spectroscopy and is comparable to an aluminum sand-cast alloy, AA 712.0. Metallographic evaluation via optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of porosity in the microstructure as well as the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... raisers and lead to tool steel product failure after final heat treatment or in service. Annealing the workpiece to a microstructure of fine carbide spheroids and lamellar pearlite will improve the machinability ( Ref 16 ). Dwelling cutting tools too long during profiling or pocketing aluminum alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with some type of mechanical testing to determine adequate heat treatment of a part. For carbon and alloy steels, bulk chemical analysis is often used in conjunction with a bulk hardness test to determine the tensile strength of the material ( Ref 1 ). For aluminum alloys, bulk chemistry in conjunction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examination based on the characteristic energies of x-rays produced by the electron beam. EDS can normally detect elements with atomic numbers of 13 (aluminum) and above at concentrations as low as 0.3 to 0.5 wt%; fluorine, sodium, and magnesium are detectable at somewhat higher concentrations. As performed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the degradation of various protective systems, such as corrosion inhibitors and lubricants. The article describes the failure analysis of steel, iron, copper, aluminum, and their alloys. It also discusses the probes available to monitor conditions relevant to MIC in industrial systems and the sampling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or precious-metal filler metals is limited to either ultradry hydrogen (AWS 7) or vacuum (AWS 10C). Superalloys or high-temperature alloys that contain reactive elements (titanium, aluminum, beryllium, zirconium, and so on) of the order of ≥1% form very stable oxides, and, once formed, these oxides can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the surface of the sample. Fig. 9 Three different energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectra obtained from the indicated regions of a copper sample surrounded by aluminum foil. Note the annotated peak labels. In cases where the sample surface is rough and cannot be disturbed, yet chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of materials under SEM examination based on the characteristic energies of X-rays produced by interaction with an electron beam. EDS can normally detect elements of atomic number 13 (aluminum) and above at concentrations as low as 0.3 to 0.5 wt%, while fluorine, sodium, and magnesium are detectable at somewhat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fracture in 7079-T651 aluminum that failed under stress-corrosion cracking conditions in a 3.5% chloride solution. Transmission electron microscopy replica Fig. 13 Mud cracks on the fracture surface of a quenched and tempered 4340 steel exposed to a marine environment. Transmission electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and aluminium alloys Randomly distributed Large microvoids (mainly transgranular) Lower K Ic Acceleration of high stress intensity fatigue Intergranular carbides in steels Nucleation of cleavage Dispersoids in steels and aluminium alloys Randomly distributed Sheets of small transgranular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “Cleaning”). These replicas can be coated with a thin layer (about 20 nm, or 2 × 10 −8 m, thick) of vacuum-deposited gold or aluminum to improve their reflectivity, or they may be shadowed at an angle to increase the contrast of fine detail. The replicas may be examined by incident-light or transmitted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is typically designed so that it outlasts the lifetime of the screw. To accomplish this, the barrel is coated with a wear-resistant inner surface, either by nitride or bimetallic alloying. The barrel must be structurally rigid to prevent sagging/deflection and must also be able to withstand pressures up to 69...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at. A minute drop or thin layer of the liquid or oil of interest can be placed on a clean substrate (silicon wafer, aluminum foil, etc.) and allowed to dry in air prior to its analysis. One consideration, however, is the electrical property of the sample—is it conducting or insulating? In general, AES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9