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bent tube

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A bent Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Several of the aluminum alloy 6061-T6 drawn seamless tubes (ASTM B 234, 2.5 cm (1.0 in.) OD with wall thickness of 1.7 mm (0.065 in.)) connecting an array of headers to a system of water-cooling pipes failed. The tubes were supplied in the O temper. They were bent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This and additional investigation (visual inspection, and 250x micrograph etched with aqua regia) supported the conclusion that the tubing failed by chloride SCC. Chlorides in the steam condensate also caused corrosion of the inner surface of the tubing. Stress was produced when the tubing was bent during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit leaked after one month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes. Cracks in the tube wall were revealed during examination. Hardness of the tube was found to be 30 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to the lower tubeplate on the opposite side. After a mishap, the paint had been burned off the upper half of the shell. Internally, most of the tubes were found to be twisted or bent. The casing of the pump used to circulate the cooling water was also found to be cracked after the mishap. All the evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract In a copper hot water system, a bent pipe was soldered into a straight pipe with twice the diameter. The neighborhood of the soldered joint was covered with corrosion product predominantly blue-green in color, presumably carbonates. When these corrosion products were scratched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract The drive-shaft hanger bearings failed after 300 to 400 h in service. The shaft, supported by labyrinth-sealed single row radial ball bearings of ABEC-1 tolerances, was made of aluminum 2024-T3 tubing (2.5 cm diam and 1.2 mm wall thickness). The bearings were lubricated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A seamless hot-drawn boiler tube NW 300 of 318 mm OD and 9 mm wall thickness made of steel 15Mo3 was bent with sand filling after preheating allegedly to 1000 deg C. In the process it had cracked repeatedly in the drawn fiber. The composition corresponded to specifications...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and shafts (vacuum tube assembly) enter the blender through this cover,. The cover material is approximately 1.5 mm thick. The cover was severely deformed and bent in a manner indicating that the concentric pipes were blown out of the blender in the accident. Inspection of the cover inside the blender showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... to fix the wire. The other end of the tube was bent so that it could be looped over the insulator on the frame, as shown in Fig. 2 . The wires broke at the apex of the tube or just slightly below it, as shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 2 Replacement precipitator wires. (a) View of a type 304 replacement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., and for strips and tubes. Due to the greater segregation of impurities in the core zone and the greater general unsoundness, the steel is not considered entirely suitable for important duties. In this respect, BS. 15 “Steel for General Structural Purposes” and BS.3607 “Mild Steel for General Engineering Purposes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... S. , The 360° cold bending of Ti–6Al–4V large diameter seamless tube . JOM 51 ( 6 ), 28 – 30 ( 1999 ) 10.1007/s11837-999-0090-y 15. Hertzberg R.W. , Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials ( Wiley , New York , 1976 ) Selected references Selected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., causing a pinhole leak. When the tubing was spooled onto the reel, the crack length was sufficient to allow the tubing to “snap” when bent over onto the reel. Although the exact cause of the corrosion was not determined, it is speculated that corrosion occurred during tubing lay-up since the pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... treatment, the hydrogen content of the atmosphere and the oxygen content and constitution of the copper or alloy. In Figure 1 are shown specimens of copper strip which were bent after being heated in a stream of hydrogen for a half, two, and six hours respectively to result in varying degrees...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and deposits and isolated pitting under the scales on the OD surface of the tubes. No other portion of the tubes, including the U-bent area, showed corrosion and/or cracking. The extent of scaling and its adherence gradually lessened along the OD surface of the tubes from the tube-side inlet toward the U-bend...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the tube; none, however, was located in line with the rupture. Both lengths of pipe submitted for examination were cross-sectioned at various places and examination of a section from the unaffected length revealed a scarf weld, as depicted in Figure 2 . The ruptured pipe was sectioned at locations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... on the bottom turn, and further leakage occurred at pinhole perforations adjacent to the crack in the top turn and near to a butt-weld in the coil. A short length containing the crack in the bottom turn of the coil was submitted for examination. This particular crack was oriented at about 45° to the tube axis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...). These values are accurate to about ±10 ksi (69 MPa). An unused compression plate and tube plate with the same catalogue number as the broken one was obtained from the manufacturer. To determine the effect of bending, the device was held in a vice and bent across the eighth hole to the approximate extent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Ed., ASM International , 1997 , p 297 – 308 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002455 • Bending and Forming of Tubing , Metalworking: Sheet Forming , Vol 14B , ASM Handbook , Semiatin S.L. , Ed., ASM International , 2006 , p 461 – 471 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005135 Large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fabricated from wrought Incoloy 800H tubing with cold bent curves welded to the straight sections. The tubing was 38 mm (1.5 in.) in diameter; the curved parts had an average thickness of 3.84 mm (0.15 in.), and the straight sections were 4.25 mm (0.17 in.) thick. The chemical specification of the U.S...